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It explains the causes of their widespread prevalence and the possibility, within man's power, to develop and draw from them in combination The book aptly explains the decisive virtues of courage and persistence, so deficient yet so vital for human fulfillment, with inspiration drawn chiefly not only from the authors' own experiences, but also from other people of renown.

It explains the causes of their widespread prevalence and the possibility, within man's power, to develop and draw from them in combination with other virtues for accomplishment. Also, and as a way to make the point clear, it uses anecdotes and quotes to illustrate. Get A Copy. More Details Other Editions 1. Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about The Graces of Persistence and Courage , please sign up. Be the first to ask a question about The Graces of Persistence and Courage.

Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Good beginning is half done. It's the worst of times, you need to summon your optimism. You are cautious in showing your true self to others. Your ability to accomplish tasks will follow with success. We all have extraordinary coded within us, waiting to be released. Compassion is a way of being. You will always have good luck in your personal affairs. The pleasure of what we enjoy is lost by wanting more. Did you remember to order your takeout also? Perhaps you've been focusing too much on that one thing.

Right now there's an energy pushing you in a new direction. Everybody feels lucky for having you as a friend. When the moment comes, take the top one. Sometimes traveling to new places leads to great transformation. Life is too short to waste time hating anyone. Don't just spend time, invest it. Life always gets harder near the summit. Take the chance while you still have the choice. It is much easier to be critical than to be correct. Enjoy life! It is better to be happy than wise. To make the cart go, you must grease the wheels.

You are contemplating some action which will bring credit upon you. Before you wonder "Am I doing things right? You will always get what you want through your charm and personality. The big issues are work, career, or status right now. Your emotional currents are flowing powerfully now. Any decision you have to make tomorrow is a good decision. Consume less. Share more. Enjoy life. The secret of staying young is good health and lying about your age. Spring has sprung. Life is blooming. Go ask your mom. The possibility of a career change is near.

The important thing is to never stop questioning. Compassion will cure more than condemnation. Excuses are easy to manufacture, and hard to sell. Put your mind into planning today. Look into the future. Listen to life, and you will hear the voice of life crying, Be! Broke is only temporary; poor is a state of mind. Here we go. Teamwork: the fuel that allows common people attain uncommon results. Hard words break no bones, fine words butter no parsnips. We cannot direct the wind, but we can adjust the sails.

You are offered the dream of a lifetime. Say yes! Working out the kinks today will make for a better tomorrow. Questions provide the key to unlocking our unlimited potential. You will enjoy razor-sharp spiritual vision today. The wise are aware of their treasure, while fools follow their vanity. Well-arranged time is the surest sign of a well-arranged mind. Never bring unhappy feelings into your home. This is really a lovely day. A golden egg of opportunity falls into your lap this month. You are very grateful for the small pleasures of life. Today, you should be a passenger.

Stay close to a driver for a day. Hate is never conquered by hate. Hate is only conquered by love. Service is the rent we pay for the privilege of living on this planet. Good clothes open many doors. Go shopping. The leader seeks to communicate his vision to his followers. Great works are performed not by strength, but by perseverance. People who are late are often happier than those who have to wait for them. Present your best ideas today to an eager and welcoming audience. The time is right to make new friends. You may be hungry soon; order a takeout now. Do not hesitate to look for help, an extra hand should always be welcomed.

How can you have a beautiful ending without making beautiful mistakes? Humor is an affirmation of dignity. What's vice today may be virtue tomorrow. You have an unusually magnetic personality. You will travel to many places.

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Accept yourself. Be a generous friend and a fair enemy. Never quit! Old friends, old wines, and old gold are best. Every friend joys in your success. You should be able to undertake and complete anything. You are a person of strong sense of duty. Dream lofty dreams, and as you dream, so shall you become. You have a quiet and unobtrusive nature. Great thoughts come from the heart. You love peace. Judge not according to the appearance. One who admires you greatly is hidden before your eyes.

Traveling more often is important for your health and happiness. You will be sharing great news with all people you love You have a reputation for being straightforward and honest. You are always welcome in any gathering. You will be traveling and coming into a fortune. Open up your heart; it can always be closed again. Being happy is not always being perfect. Next time you have the opportunity, go on a roller coaster. Try everything once, even the things you don't think you will like.

Life is too short to hold grudges. Dream your dream and your dream will dream of you. Being alone and being lonely are two different things. Tomorrow, take a moment to do something just for yourself. Someone close to you is waiting for you to call. A virtual fortune cookie will not satisfy your hunger like that of a home made one. Tomorrow is another day. You can never be certain of success, but you can be certain of failure if you never try.

It takes ten times as many muscles to frown as it does to smile.

Why would anyone persist in pursuing relationships that are doomed to failure?

Shoot for the moon! If you miss you will still be amongst the stars. Keep your eyes open. You never know what you might see. Tell them what you really think. Otherwise, nothing will change. Let your heart make your decisions; it does not get as confused as your head. Working hard will make you live a happy life.

You have a deep appreciation of the arts and music. Prosperity is in your fortune. Enthusiasm can change the current situation. You are the master of every situation. You have a lively family. A balance is needed between home and business. A carefree life will be yours. A challenge is near. A change of heart may lead to a new living environment. A certain someone will appear who could enhance your life.

A companion is an added strength. A distant romance will begin to look more promising. A dramatic change of scenery is in store for you. A financial venture will turn a profit sooner than expected. A firm friendship will prove the foundation on your success in life. A friend will bear great news. A friend will soon bring you a present. A girlfriend is like a bottle of wine, and a wife is like a wine bottle.

A good reputation is something to prize and cherish. A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step. A loved one's concerns are of utmost importance at this time. A man with brown eyes has a surprise for you. A messenger will soon bring good tidings. A new approach will bring you greater career success. A new chapter in your life is being written.


A newcomer in your life is becoming more important. A newspaper item will soon happily affect you. A package or letter is important to you tomorrow. A partnership shall prove successful. A personal relationship will become more fulfilling. A refreshing change is in your future. A resort area will be part of your next holiday plans. A romantic interlude may have to be postponed. A short stranger will soon enter your life. A sudden change in plans will lead to good fortune. A tantalizing new prospect will come your way.

A television program will give you great impetus. A thing of beauty shall bring you great joy. A thrilling time is ahead for you. A trip by air is in your future. A trip is in your future. A very important personal discussion will take place today. A windfall is coming for you. A worthy cause will appreciate your generosity. Accept no substitutes for that which is genuine. Accept the next proposition you hear. Achieving peace of mind is a most worthwhile goal.

Act now for good results in the spring. Affairs of the heart shall bring you deep joy. All facets of your life are looking up. All goes well with your personal life. All your hard work will soon pay off. An accidental meeting will be to your advantage. An appeal for some assistance may catch you off guard. An important position shall soon be yours. An important telephone call will soon be made to you.

An interesting project is pending. An official document will arrive soon. An old friend will be your source of strength. An old friend will try to contact you. An outgoing attitude is the key to your efforts. An outstanding opportunity will soon present itself.

An unexpected call could be pleasing to a good friend. Answer just what your heart prompts you. At the end of the month you will gain more peace of mind. Avoid taking unnecessary risks. Back away from individuals who are impulsive. Be assertive and you will win. Be cautious at this time.

Be patient if some luxuries are not out of your reach. Be receptive to making new friends today. Be sympathetic and you will get a new insight in your dealings. Behind every able man there are other able men. Being on time will aid you to succeed this month. Being the first to try something new could be great. Brighter prospects can originate from a change of heart. By next month, your added responsibilities will be alleviated. Catch up with various neglected chores.

Cherish home and family as a special treasure. Children will contribute to your cheerfulness. Children will play an important role in your life. Clarity of mind helps in decision making. Compassion is very much a part of you. Concentrate on financial matters until the end of the month.

Confucius say, "Virgin like balloon; one prick, all gone. Contentment will be your key to happiness. Cope with current pressures without losing your cool. Counting time is not as important as making time count. Courage and optimism are your best traits. Deal only with firms of proven reliability. Decide what you want and go for it. Desires that are not extravagant will be granted. Diversify your interests for fewer worries. Don't be hasty; prosperity will knock on your door soon. Don't forget, you are always on our minds. Don't lose sight of what you want. Don't steal, the government hates competition.

Doors shall soon open for you. Easy times are ahead for you. Energy will abound next month. Enjoy the good luck a companion brings you. Enjoy your good company, they are true friends. Everything takes longer than you think. Executive ability in your makeup will lead you to success. Fall shall see all your cares and worries slip away.

Family relationships will improve with time. Feelings of goodwill to all should lighten your mood. Few women admit their age. Few men act theirs. Financial security is just around the corner. Financial success is on your doorstep. Find some time to look up some older relatives. Find the road to your happiness by helping others.

Follow the advice of your heart. Follow your instincts, they are valid. Following inner promptings brings quiet accomplishment. Fortune is on your side. Play it for all it's worth. Fortune smiles upon you at this time. Fruits of your labour will be rich and sweet indeed. Fun and excitement will soon be yours.

Functioning superbly will come automatically to you. Get to the nitty-gritty of things in all dealings. Get together with associates for beneficial decisions. Get your schedule into a shape you can manage easily. Give it time and it will work out. Give time and thought to everything you do. Give your business interests top priority next month. Give your undivided attention to things that are basic.

Go easy, be moderate and patient. Golden investment opportunities are arising. Good common sense will help you master life. Good fortune will soon find you. Good news is on the way. Good news will come to you from far away. Good things are said about you. Good things come in small packages. Great thoughts will come from the heart. Happy events will take place shortly in your home.

Heaven will rain success on you. Home entertainment ought to be extra successful now. Ideas are like children; there are none so wonderful as your own. If bargain hunting, be practical. If ignorance is bliss, you must be orgasmic. If planning study or training, now is the time to go ahead.

“You HAVE to Make a CHOICE: Am I Going to SHOW UP?” - Brené Brown (@BreneBrown) Top 10 Rules

If you have any doubts at all, hold off on decisions. If you have money in hand, spend it on improving yourself. If you work seriously, you will succeed. Important associates will be there for you if needed. Important decisions must be made, don't avoid making them. Important news about your job will come soon.

Indulge your ambitious nature. It will take maturity and compromise to manage. Joint ventures work out better than going it alone. Joy will come with the return of a dear friend. Judge one not by his charms, but by his qualities. Keep a 'go-for-it' attitude and you are sure to be a winner. Keep expectations reasonable. Let intuition rule this month, and you will find success. Let no one cause you to violate your principles.

Life is not a struggle, it's a wiggle. Life will shower happiness upon you. Look deeply within to root out negative attitudes. Look for a priceless bit of news from a loved one. Look for new outlets for your own creative abilities. Look for some bargains this month. Look to the coming month for a solution to your problem. Love begets love.

Listen to your intuition this month. Love is like wildflowers; it is often found in the most unlikely places. Love is the triumph of "horny" over "smart". Luck begins to soar as high as your ambition. Luck is on your side if you have patience.

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Luck is on your side this month. Luck will soon visit you. Luck will visit you on the next new moon. Luck with your job and money will put you into good humour. Make allowances for exaggeration on someone's part. Make no rash moves for now. Make the most of a period of relative peace and harmony. Make two grins grow where there was only a grouch before. Make up your mind and do what you want to do. Make use of whatever advanced technology is available. Make way for new career decisions. Many a false step is made by standing still. Many ideals are becoming real.

May life throw you a pleasant curve. Minimize expectations to avoid being disappointed. Moneywise, you are lucky this month. More money and travel is in your future. Move slowly but surely to success. New financial resources will soon become available to you. Next month will be a special month for you. Next month will be hectic, yet delightful. Next month will prove to be pivotal in your life. Next week you should unveil your idea. Be ready to act. Next month you will be a big hit socially.

Now is a good time to start something new. Now is the time. Now is the time to depart from your regular routine. Now is the time to enjoy trying something new. Now is the time to resolve all unfinished business. Now is the time to set priorities. Now is the time to set your sights high and go for it.

Now is the time to try something new. Old acquaintances are important this week. On the first week of the next month do something just for you. Opportunities to shine in your career will materialize soon. Others' thought waves are easy to tune into now. People will listen to you and could be willing to help.

People you deal with will be more co-operative than usual. Persistence will lead to a promotion soon. Play it safe next month, and it will be a great one. Recreational interests may command your attention. Re-decorating will be in your plans. Relax and concentrate on your career plans. Relax and romance will flourish. The libraries and archives that we had only dreamt of were now literally at our fingertips.

The Internet brought with it the exhilaration and the abundance of a frontier-less commons along with the fractious and debilitating intensity of de-personalized disputes in electronic discussion lists. It demonstrated the possibilities of extraordinary feats of electronic generosity and altruism when people shared enormous quantities of information on peer-to-peer network and at the same time it provided early exposure to and warnings about the relentless narcissism of vanity blogging.

It changed the ways in which the world became present to us and the ways in which we became present to the world, forever. The Internet expands the horizon of every utterance or expressive act to a potentially planetary level. This makes it impossible to imagine a purely local context or public for anything that anyone creates today.

It also de-centres the idea of the global from any privileged location. No place is any more or less the centre of the world than any other anymore. As people who once sensed that they inhabited the intellectual margins of the contemporary world simply because of the nature of geo-political arrangements, we know that nothing can be quite as debilitating as the constant production of proof of one's significance.

The Internet has changed this one fact comprehensively. The significance, worth or import of one's statements is no longer automatically tied to the physical facts of one's location along a still unequal geo-political map. While this does not mean that as artists, intellectuals or creative practitioners we stop considering or attending to our anchorage in specific co-ordinates of actual physical locations, what it does mean is that we understand that the concrete fact of our physical place in the world is striated by the location's transmitting and receiving capacities, which turns everything we choose to create into either a weak or a strong signal.

We are aware that these signals go out, not just to those we know and to those who know us, but to the rest of the world, through possibly endless relays and loops. This changes our understanding of the public for our work. We cannot view our public any longer as being arrayed along familiar and predictable lines. The public for our work, for any work that positions itself anywhere vis-a-vis the global digital commons is now a set of concentric and overlapping circles, arranged along the ripples produced by pebbles thrown into the fluid mass of the Internet.

Artists have to think differently about their work in the time of the Internet because artistic work resonates differently, and at different amplitudes. More often than not, we are talking to strangers on intimate terms, even when we are not aware of the actual instances of communication.

This process also has its mirror. We are also listening to strangers all the time. Nothing that takes place anywhere in the world and is communicated on the Internet is at a remove any longer. Just as everyone on the Internet is a potential recipient and transmitter of our signals, we too are stations for the reception and relay of other people's messages.

This constancy of connection to the nervous systems of billions of others comes with its own consequences. No one can be immune to the storms that shake the world today. What happens down our streets becomes as present in our lives as what happens down our modems. This makes us present in vital and existential ways to what might be happening at great distance, but it also brings with it the possibility of a disconnect with what is happening around us, or near us, if they happen not to be online.

This is especially true of things and people that drop out, or are forced to drop out of the network, or are in any way compelled not to be present online. This foreshortening and occasionally magnification of distances and compression of time compels us to think in a more nuanced way about attention.

Attention is no longer a simple function of things that are available for the regard of our senses. With everything that comes to our attention we have to now ask - 'what obstacles did it have to cross to traverse the threshold of our considerations' - and while asking this we have to understand that obstacles to attention are no longer a function of distance. The Internet also alters our perception of duration. Sometimes, when working on an obstinately analog process such as the actual fabrication of an object, the internalized shadow of fleeting Internet time in our consciousness makes us perceive how the inevitable delays inherent in the fashioning of things in all their messy 'thingness' ground us into appreciating the rhythms of the real world.

In this way, the Internet's pervasive co-presence with real world processes, ends up reminding us of the fact that our experience of duration is now a layered thing. We now have more than one clock, running in more than one direction, at more than one speeds. The simultaneous availability of different registers of time made manifest by the Internet also creates a continuous archive of our online presences and inscriptions. A message is archived as soon as it is sent. The everyday generation of an internal archive of our work, and the public archive of our utterances on online discussion lists and on facebook mean that nothing not even a throwaway observation is a throwaway observation anymore.

We are all accountable to, and for, the things we have written in emails or posted on online fora. We are yet to get a full sense of what this actually implies in the longer term. The automatic generation of a chronicle and a history colours the destiny of all statements. Nothing can be consigned to amnesia, even though it may appear to be insignificant. Conversely, no matter how important a statement may have appeared when it was first uttered, its significance is compromised by the fact that it is ultimately filed away as just another datum, a pebble, in a growing mountain range.

Whosoever maintains an archive of their practice online is aware of the fact that they alter the terms of their visibility. Earlier, one assumed invisibility to be the default mode of life and practice. Today, visibility is the default mode, and one has to make a special effort to withhold any aspect of one's practice from visibility.

This changes the way we think about the relationship between the private memory and public presence of a practice. It is not a matter of whether this leads to a loss of privacy or an erosion of spaces for intimacy, it is just that issues such as privacy, intimacy, publicity, inclusion and seclusion are now inflected very differently. Finally, the Internet changes the way we think about information. The fact that we do not know something that exists in the extant expansive commons of human knowledge can no longer intimidate us into reticence.

If we do not know something, someone else does, and there are enough ways around the commons of the Internet that enable us to get to sources of the known. The unknown is no longer that which is unavailable, because whatever is present is available on the network and so can be known, at least nominally if not substantively.

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A bearer of knowledge is no longer armed with secret weapons. We have always been auto-didacts, and knowing that we can touch what we do not yet know and make it our own, makes working with knowledge immensely playful and pleasurable. Sometimes, a surprise is only a click away. How does the Internet change the way I think? It puts me in the present tense.

It's as if my cognitive resources are shifted from my hard drive to my RAM. That which is happening right now is valued, and everything in the past or future becomes less relevant. The Internet pushes us all toward the immediate. The now. Every inquiry is to be answered right away, and every fact or idea is only as fresh as the time it takes to refresh a page.

And as a result, speaking for myself, the Internet makes me mean. And it's not a matter of what any of these folks might want me to do, but when. They want it now. This is not a bias of the Internet itself, but of the way it has changed from an opt-in activity to an "always on" condition of my life. The bias of medium was never towards real-time activity, but towards time shifting. Unix, the operating system of the Net, doesn't work in real time. It sits and waits for human commands. Likewise, early Internet forums and bulletin boards were discussions users returned to at their convenience.

I dropped in the conversation, then came back the next evening or next week to see how it had developed. An Internet exchange was only as rich as the amount of time I allowed to pass between posts. Once the Internet changed from a resource at my desk into an appendage chirping from my pocket and vibrating on my thigh, however, the value of depth was replaced by that of immediacy masquerading as relevancy. This is why Google is changing itself from a search engine to a "live" search engine, why email devolved to SMS and blogs devolved to tweets. It's why schoolchildren can no longer engage in linear arguments, why narrative structure collapsed into reality TV, why and why almost no one can engage in meaningful dialogue about long-term global issues.

It creates an environment where a few incriminating emails between scientists generate so more news than our much slower but more significant climate crisis. It's as if the relentless demand of networks for me to be everywhere, all the time, denies me access to the moment in which I am really living. In some senses, this was the goal of those who developed the computers and networks on which we depend today. Technology visionaries such as Vannevar Bush and James Licklider sought to develop machines that could do our remembering for us.

And that may have worked had technological development leaned towards the option of living life disconnected from those machines whenever access to their memory banks was not required. This always-on approach to digital technology surrenders my nervous system rather than expanding it. Likewise, the simultaneity of information streaming towards me prevents parsing or consideration. It becomes a constant flow which must be managed, perpetually. The now-ness of the Internet engenders impulsive, unthinking responses over considered ones, and a tendency to think of communications as a way to bark orders or fend off those of others.

I want to satisfy the devices chirping and vibrating in my pockets, only to make them stop. Instead of looking at each digital conversation as an opportunity for depth, I experience them as involuntary triggers of my nervous system. Like my fellow networked humans, I now suffer the physical and emotional stresses previously associated with careers such as air traffic controllers and operators. I feel as though I speeding up, when I am actually just becoming less productive, less thoughtful, and less capable of asserting any agency over the world in which I live.

The result something akin to future shock. Only in our era, it's more of a present shock. I try to look at the positive: Our Internet-enabled emphasis on the present may have liberated us from the 20th century's dangerously compelling ideological narratives. And people are less likely to believe employers' and corporations' false promises of future rewards for years of loyalty now. But, for me anyway, it has not actually brought me into greater awareness of what is going on around me.

I am not approaching some Zen state of an infinite moment, completely at one with my surroundings, connected to others, and aware of myself on any fundamental level. Rather, I am increasingly in a distracted present, where forces on the periphery are magnified and those immediately before me are ignored. Instead of finding a stable foothold in the here and now, I end up reacting to ever-present assault of simultaneous impulses and commands. The Internet tells me I am thinking in real time, when what it really does, increasingly, is take away the real and take away the time.

The dimensionality of the Internet has yet to be defined, and the principles outlining its space are constantly negotiated through our use of it. Ideally, the relation between user and network should one of mutual exchange: I co-produce the network through my involvement in it, and it co-produces me through the information, I get from it. But for this to happen, we have to make better use of the potentials of the Internet, and the Internet has to have an interest in this mutual exchange — it has to invest itself in its users, so to speak.

In its current form, the Internet, the way I see it, has signed a contract with a Modernist, two-dimensional conception of space. The relation between it and its users is one of subject and object: I can see it as if it were an image, but I cannot feel it, I'm not present in it, the interaction between the medium and I is too weak. Being a profoundly democratic medium, opening up unprecedented possibilities of self-expression, freedom of the press and access to information, the Internet is not only the source of unlimited access to knowledge, but paradoxically enough also the breeding ground of a general acceptance of a lack of competences.

Large social communities such as Facebook, which do not produce or exchange any kind of knowledge, seem to flourish, and because search machines are based on trivial algorithmic principles of recognition, it can be hard to find the qualified, critical voices in the bulk of information. If the Internet should help us become more consciously involved with the world, it is not enough to just canalise huge amounts of information into society. Search engines should be competence-focused, social networks should relate to competent search engines, and video and search functions should be better integrated.

This requires that Google, Yahoo, AOL and the other large companies defining the future of the Internet, provide the medium with enough confidence to operate with self-criticism. This is not enough. We have to base our use of the Internet on both trust and scepticism. In this way, the Internet would not stand outside reality and send information in, rather it would be conceived of as a part of reality, and thus the distinction between subject and object would dissolve, and we would experience the Internet as if it were a three-dimensional space.

The Internet would become a reality producing machine. The process was so gradual, so natural, that I didn't notice it at first. In retrospect, it was happening to me long before the advent of the Internet. The earliest symptoms still mar the books in my library. Every dog-eared page represents a hole in my my memory. Instead of trying to memorize a passage in the book or remember an important statistic, I took an easier path, storing the location of the desirable memory instead of the memory itself.

Every dog-ear is a meta-memory, a pointer to an idea that I wanted to retain but was too lazy to memorize. The Internet turned an occasional habit into my primary way of storing knowledge. As the Web grew, my browsers began to bloat with bookmarked Websites, with sites that stored information that I deemed important but didn't feel obliged to commit to memory. And as search engines matured, I stopped bothering even with bookmarks; I soon relied upon Altavista, Hotbot, and then Google to help me find — and recall — ideas.

My meta-memories, my pointers to ideas, started being replaced by meta-meta-memories, by pointers to pointers to data. Each day, my brain fills with these quasi-memories, with pointers and with pointers to pointers, each one a dusty IOU sitting where a fact or idea should reside. Now, when I expend the effort to squirrel memories away, I store them in the clutter of my hard drive as much as I do in the labyrinth of my brain. As a result, I spend as much time organizing them, making sure I can retrieve them on demand, as I do collecting them.

My memories are filed in folders within folders within folders, easily accessible — and searchable, in case my meta-memory of their location fails. And when a file becomes corrupt, all I am left with a pointer, a void where an idea should be, a ghost of a departed thought. As visual artists, we might rephrase the question as something like: How has the Internet changed the way we see? For the visual artist, seeing is essential to thought.

It organizes information and how we develop thoughts and feelings. It's how we connect. So how has the Internet changed us visually? The changes are subtle yet profound. They did not start with the computer. The changes began with the camera and other film-based media, and the Internet has had an exponential effect on that change. The result is a leveling of visual information, whereby it all assumes the same characteristics. One loss is a sense of scale. Another is a loss of differentiation between materials, and the process of making.

Art objects contain a dynamism based on scale and physicality that produces a somatic response in the viewer. The powerful visual experience of art locates the viewer very precisely as an integrated self within the artist's vision. With the flattening of visual information and the randomness of size inherent in reproduction, the significance of scale is eroded.

Visual information becomes based on image alone. Experience is replaced with facsimile. As admittedly useful as the Internet is, easy access to images of everything and anything creates a false illusion of knowledge and experience. The world pictured as pictures does not deliver the experience of art seen and experienced physically. It is possible for an art-experienced person to "translate" what is seen online, but the experience is necessarily remote. As John Berger pointed out, the nature of photography is a memory device that allows us to forget.

Perhaps something similar can be said about the Internet. In terms of art, the Internet expands the network of reproduction that replaces the way we "know" something. It replaces experience with facsimile. The Internet is producing a fundamental alteration in the relationship between knowledge, content, place and space. If we consider the world as divided into two similarly populous halves: the ones born before and the ones born after — of course there are other important differences such as gender, race, class, ethnicity, geography, etc. I am responding to this question from Funes, a locality of 15, inhabitants in the core of the Argentine Pampas country side.

Five other users are here. A man on a Facebook page posting photos of a baby and a trip and myself, a 42 year-old architect on vacation with an assignment due in two hours! I am the elder here. I am the nonlocal here. Yet the computer helps me and corrects my spelling without asking anyone. Years ago when I was an architectural student and wanted to know about, say, Guarino Guarini's importance as an architect, I would go two flights down the stairs at Avery Library, get a few cards, follow the numbered instructions on those index cards and find, two or four or seven feet worth of books in a shelf dedicated to the subject I would leaf through all the found books and get a vague, yet physical sense of how much there was to know about the subject matter.

Now I Google "Guarino Guarini", and in 0. My Google search is both very detailed yet not at all physical. I can't tell how much I like this person's personality or work. I can't decide if I want to flip through more entries. I am in a car traveling from New York to Philadelphia.

I have GPS but no maps. The GPS announces where to go and takes into account traffic and tolls. In that other trip I had a map, I entered the city from a bridge, the foreground was industrial and decrepit the background was vertical and contemporary I zoom out the GPS to see if the GPS map reveals an alternative entry route, a different way the city geography can be approached. Nothing in the GPS map looks like the space I remember. What happened? Is my memory of the place faulty or is the focus of the GPS too narrow?

If decisions take into account the many ways in which information comes to us then the internet at this point privileges what we can see and read over many other aspects of knowledge and sensation. How much something weights, how does it feels, how stable it is. Are we, the ones that knew places before the internet, more able to navigate them now or less? Do we make better or worse decisions based on the content we take in? Do we have longer better rests in far away places or constant place-less-ness? How have image, space, place and content been altered to give us a sense of here and now?

I believe that the history of time has been impacted by several enormous inventions. First was the watch which unified man's concept of measurement of time. It is interesting to note that China was the last country to join the rest of the world in embracing the clock. It was chairman Mao who brought in this drastic change, among others.

The invention of photography created several concrete displacements of our perception of the past. The world was quick to accept the photograph as a forcible document containing absolute evidence. This concept endured until sometime in the s when the photograph was no longer accepted in courts of law. From my point of view the next great watershed that influenced our perception of time has been the arrival of the Internet.

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I know that it certainly speeds things up etc. I believe that there is a metaphysical element that surely the mystics could define. But for me the most blatant phenomena is that my life has to an extent compressed to the extent that I am not only aging in the conventional sense but also not aging, due to the fact that rather than losing information with the passing of "time" I am in fact accruing more and more information. I remain indifferent to the entire event of place as it is experienced by young arrivals to the planet who find the most concrete forms of reality floating upon the surface of their computer display.

The idea of an Internet without some form of computer device is, for the time being, out of reach. Thus the Internet and the computer are married in some ethereal place, as yet undefined. As an amateur musician I find the Internet linked in time with the nature of music itself. I can hear it now. The Internet first appeared long after I had received my Ph. I had been trained in physical library search techniques: look up the subject in Science Abstracts a journal itself now made defunct by the Internet , then go to the archived full article in the physical journal shelved nearby.

I no longer have to go to the library; I can access the SCI and the online journals via the Internet. These Internet versions of journals and Abstracts have one disadvantage at present: my university can afford only a limited window for the search. I can use the SCI only back ten years, and most e-journals have not yet converted their older volumes to online format, or if they have, my university can often not afford to pay for access to these older print journals.

So the Internet causes scientific knowledge to become obsolete faster than was the case with the older print media. A scientist trained in the print media tradition is aware that there is knowledge stored in the print journals, but I wonder if the new generation of scientists, who grow up with the Internet, are aware of this. Also, print journals were forever. They may have merely gathered dust for decades, but they could still be read by any later generation. I can no longer read my own articles stored on the floppy discs of the 's. Computer technology has changed too much.

Will information stored on the Internet become unreadable to later generations because of data storage changes, and the knowledge lost? At the moment the data is accessible. More importantly, the raw experimental data is becoming available to theorists like myself via the Internet.

It is well known from the history of science that experimentalists quite often do not appreciate the full significance of their own observations. Now that the Internet allows the experimenter to post her data, we theorists can individually analyze it. Let me give an example from my own work. Standard quantum mechanics asserts that an interference pattern of electrons passing through a double slit must have a certain distribution as the number of electrons approaches infinity.

However, this same standard quantum mechanics does not give an exact description of the rate at which the final distribution will be approached. Many-Worlds quantum mechanics, in contrast, gives us a precise formula for this rate of approach, since according to Many-Worlds quantum mechanics, physical reality is not probabilistic at all, but more deterministic than the universe of classical mechanics. According to Many-Worlds quantum mechanics, the wave function measures the density of Worlds in the Multiverse rather than a probability. Experimenters — indeed, undergraduate students in physics — have observed the approach to the final distribution, but they have never tried to compare their observations with any rate of approach formula, since according to standard quantum mechanics there is no rate of approach formula.

Using the Internet, I was able to find raw data on electron interference that I used to test the Many-Worlds formula. Most theorists can tell a similar story. But I sometimes wonder if later generations of theorists will be able to tell a similar story. Discoveries can be made by analyzing raw data posted online today, but will this always be true? The great physicist Richard Feynman often claimed: "there will be no more great physicists. Feynman argued in Surely You're Joking Mr.

Feynman that all of his own achievements were due, not to his higher-than-other-physicists I. Everyone would think the same way. The Internet is currently the great leveler: it allows everyone to have access to exactly the same information. Will this ultimately destroy diversity of thought? Or will the tendency of people to form isolated groups on the Internet preserve that all important diversity of thought, so that although scientists all have equal access in principle, there are still those who look at the raw data in a different way from the consensus?

The Internet dispenses information the way a ketchup bottle dispenses ketchup. At first there was too little; now there is too much. Use of the Internet has not changed the way that I think, but it is making a unique contribution by providing me with immediate and convenient access to an extraordinary range of ideas and information. This development can be considered as a natural extension to the sequence that began with tablets of clay, continued through papyrus, parchment, handwritten manuscripts on paper to the recent mass produced books printed on paper.

Happily the Internet provides us with access to many of these earlier forms of the written word as well as to electronic communications. Access to information and ideas has always been important for both personal development and progress of a community or nation. As a school boy, when I first became interested in facts and ideas my family were living in an industrial part of the north of England and at that time I made great use of a public library.

The library was part of an industrial village established by a philanthropic entrepreneur who made his money by importing Alpacas' cashmere-like fleece and weaving fine clothes. Alpacas are members of the camelid family found in the Andes of Peru and Chile. He provided not only houses, a hospital, but schools and a technical college, and the library. I took it for granted that libraries which provided access to books, most of which could be borrowed and taken home, were available everywhere.

This is still not the case, but in the near future the Internet may provide an equivalent opportunity for people everywhere. Whereas libraries have been established in most major societies, it is only in the recent past that they have been made generally available to ordinary citizens. One of the earliest libraries for which records remain is the Great Library of Alexandria in Egypt which was founded around BC by pharaoh Ptolemy I. It grew to hold several hundred thousand scrolls, some of which are said to have been taken from boats that happened to dock at Alexandria while carrying out their trade.

The library contributed to the establishment of Alexandria as a major seat of learning. Sadly the library was destroyed by fire. Never the less it represented a particular landmark in the development of the concept of a library as a collection of books to provide a reservoir of knowledge, that should be staffed by specific keepers whose tasks included expansion of the collection. Other similar libraries were established during this period, including those at Ephesus in Turkey and Sankore in Timbuktu. During the period of the Roman Empire wealthy and influential people continued the practice of establishing libraries, most of which were open only to scholars with the appropriate qualifications.

A survey in AD identified 29 libraries in Rome, but as the Empire declined the habit of establishing and maintaining libraries was lost.

The development of monasteries provided a renewed stimulus for learning. They amassed book collections and introduced the habit of exchanging volumes. Recognizing the importance of learning the Benedictine rules required that monks spent specified periods of time reading. As Europe emerged from the Dark Ages wealthy families again began to collect books and then donate their libraries to seats of learning in places such as Florence, Paris, Vatican City and Oxford.

All of these libraries depended upon the copying of text by hand and it was only the development of printing by Gutenberg in the s that production of books was transformed they were much more readily available. During the period to there was an extraordinary expansion of libraries, by universities and nations.

Some of these were named after major benefactors, such as the Bodlean Library in Oxford and the library donated by the Massachusetts clergyman John Harvard, after whom the university is named. In the United States the Library of Congress was founded in and after a fire during the War of Independence its stock was replenished by the purchase of the collection that had been amassed by Thomas Jefferson. The Library of Congress now claims to be the largest library in the world with more than million items.

It was also during this period that public libraries became more common and books became more generally available for the first time. In some cases subscriptions were used to purchase books, but there was no charge for subsequent loans. One such was the Library Company of Philadelphia established by a group that included Benjamin Franklin in The oldest surviving free reference library in the United Kingdom, Chetham's, was established in Manchester in It was at this time that the UK parliament passed an Act to promote the formation of Public Libraries.

In the United States the first free public library was only formed in , in New Hampshire. The Scots born entrepreneur Andrew Carniegie went on to build more than 1, public libraries in the US between and These libraries were the first to make large numbers of books available to the general public. Of course books are only valuable to those who have access to them, can read and are encouraged to do so. Often reading was associated with religion as knowledge of the sacred scripture was important.

In England around the ability to read a particular Psalm entitled a defendant to be tried in an ecclesiastical court, which was typically more lenient than a civil court. In some places funds were allocated specifically to teach people to read the scriptures, but this provision was not always available universally. At the time of the civil war in the US owners were prohibited from teaching their slaves to read and write.

As recently as the Brazilian educator Paulo Freire was arrested and expelled for daring to teach peasants to read. Universal access to the Internet could have an exceptionally important contribution to make to future political developments. Access to the Internet would then provide the opportunity to everyone anywhere in the world to obtain a great deal of information on any subject that they choose. Knowledge accumulated over centuries of human experience is an important counter to fashions of the moment communicated through commercial mass media.

It is hard to imagine that making each of us aware of the circumstances and beliefs of people in other parts of the world can do anything but good. We would surely be more likely to assist countries such as Afghanistan and Iraq to form liberal democracies by helping to provide education, training, employment and so wealth and greater understanding than by military take over, which inevitably causes a very large numbers of civilian casualties and a great deal of damage.

There is one cautionary note. Texts of any kind, be they on parchment or available through electronic systems, are only as useful as they are accurate. In the days when books were prepared by hand the accuracy of scribes was recognized as being of paramount importance. In a rather different way, but of equal importance, we depend upon the rigor of the research done by those whose electronically reproduced articles we read.

Who has not Googled thyself? Most humans have a concept of self that is constructed in terms of how we think we are perceived by those around us and the Internet has made that preoccupation trivially easy. Now anyone can assess their impact factor through a multitude of platforms including Facebook, Twitter and of course, blogging. Last year, on the request of my publisher, I started a blog to comment on weird and bizarre examples of supernatural thinking from around the world. From the outset I thought that blogging was a self-indulgent activity but I agreed to give it a whirl to help promote my book.

In spite of my initial reluctance I very soon became addicted to feedback. It was not enough to post blogs for some unseen audience. I needed the validation from visitors that my efforts and opinions were appreciated. Within weeks, I had become a numbers junkie looking for more and more hits. However, the Internet has also made me sentient of my own insignificance and power at the same time. Within the blogosphere, I am no longer an expert on any opinion as it is one that can be shared or rejected by multitude of others.

But insignificant individuals can make a significant difference when they coalesce around a cause. As this goes to press, a British company is under public scrutiny for allegedly selling bogus bomb-detecting dowsing rods to the Iraqi security forces. This has come about because of a blog campaign by like-minded skeptics who have used the Internet to draw attention to what they consider to be questionable business activity.

This would have been very difficult and daunting in the pre-Internet days and not something that the ordinary man in street would have taken on. In this way, the Internet can empower the individual through collective campaigns. I can make a difference because of the Internet. I'll be checking back on Google to see if anyone shares my opinion.