- The Progressive Education Fallacy in Developing Countries: In Favour of Formalism
- The Progressive Education Fallacy in Developing Countries : Gerard Guthrie :
- The Progressive Education Fallacy in Developing Countries
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Alexander, R. Culture and pedagogy: International comparisons in primary education.
Oxford: Blackwell. Towards a comparative pedagogy in R. Kazamias, Eds.http://www.maquinarias-reunidas.com/libraries/series/the-great-defense-of-layosah-a-torcom-original-vault-of-heaven.php
The Progressive Education Fallacy in Developing Countries: In Favour of Formalism
Chafi, M. Teacher excessive pedagogical authority in Moroccan primary classroom. American Journal of Educational Research, 4 1 , Clarke, M. Clarke, P.
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Culture and classroom reform: The case of the district primary education project, India. Comparative Education, 39 1 , 27— Day, C. Research on teacher thinking: Understanding professional development. New York: Falmer Press. D'Andrade, R. The development of cognitive anthropology.
Some methods for studying cultural cognitive structures. Quinn Ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Elliot, J. Feiman Nemser, S. The cultures of teaching. Wittrock Ed.
The Progressive Education Fallacy in Developing Countries : Gerard Guthrie :
New York: Macmillan. Fullan, M. The complexity of the change process. Fullan Ed. The new meaning of educational change 4th ed. New York: Teachers College Press. Fuller, B.
The Progressive Education Fallacy in Developing Countries
Raising school effects while ignoring culture? Local conditions and the influence of classroom tools, rules, and pedagogy. Review of educational research, 64 1 , Goodson, I. Professional knowledge, professional lives: studies in education and change.
Healey, F. Education reform support: A framework for scaling up school reform. Retrieved from files. Guthrie, G. The progressive education fallacy in developing countries: In favour of formalism. New York: Springer. Hargreaves, A. Hargreaves Ed. Holland, D.
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Culture and cognition. Holland Eds. Rarely is deep consideration given to cultural context as a key background variable that provides a subtle but powerful influence — to the extent that it is really a prior condition for classroom change. Progressive education stems from Eurocentric especially English-speaking cultures based on scientific epistemology that holds that knowledge is there to be created and that student-centred progressive education should focus on helping students learn how to discover such knowledge.
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In contrast, the revelatory cultures that prevail in many parts of the world focus on given truths, which pedagogic teachers should pass on to their students. Failed curriculum reforms in Papua New Guinea, the high academic achievement found in Confucian-tradition countries, and widespread evidence from Africa and Asia show that progressive education is unlikely to succeed or is unnecessary in countries with pedagogic paradigms founded in revelatory epistemologies.
Papua New Guinea is a prime example. Seven major curriculum reforms over the past 50 years have all failed or lack evidence to support any claims of success. There is little evidence to suggest that a round of education reform persevered with since the early s has succeeded in generating classroom change, despite many inputs from the Australian aid program.
Formalistic teaching persists, fundamentally because it is culturally appropriate. Old-fashioned though formalism may be in some Western countries, classroom change in the developing world does not necessarily require progressive methods, but can focus on upgrading formalism. Formalism in many countries is a symptom of age-old cultural preferences, not an obstruction to modernisation. It should not be regarded as a classroom problem readily fixed, but as a deep-rooted cultural behaviour capable of playing an important role long into the future by laying foundations for advanced learning.
Dr Gerard Guthrie is an educationalist with 40 years experience. His career has had two main parts. As an academic, he has been a staff member of four universities in Australia and Papua New Guinea, including as Foundation Professsor of Education at the University of Goroka.