- Quantum imaging - Wikipedia
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- In vivo intermolecular double-quantum imaging on a clinical 1.5 T MR scanner
Morris, Reuben S. Boyd, and Miles J. Padgett Opt. Express 26 6 Aziz Kolkiran and G. Agarwal Opt. Express 15 11 Tham, H. Ferretti, and A. Tang, K. Durak, and A. Stoklasa, Z. Hradil, L. Yang, A. Tashchilina, E. Moiseev, C. Simon, and A. Bessire, L. Gasparini, D. Stoppa, and A. Tsang, R. Nair, and X. Lupo and S.
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Quantum imaging - Wikipedia
Bateman, D. Mahler, R. Okamoto, A. Feizpour, A. Hayat, and A.
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Lloyd, and L. Guerrieri, L. Maccone, F. Wong, J. Shapiro, S. Tisa, and F. Lloyd, L. Maccone, and J. Santos, J. Kapale, L. Didomenico, H. Lee, P. Kok, and J. Quantum Electron. Nagata, R. Okamoto, J. Sasaki, and S. Hemmer, A. Muthukrishnan, M. Scully, and M. Dayan, M.
In vivo intermolecular double-quantum imaging on a clinical 1.5 T MR scanner
Vucelja, Y. Silberg, A. Friesem, Y. Though there are still some theoretical issues which remain to be addressed 12 , intermolecular dipolar interaction effects have lost much of their mystical character and are becoming useful tools in NMR. Recently, there has been great interest in the potential of the MQC or MSE contrast mechanisms for MRI , because these contrast mechanisms may provide improved detection of tumors and eliminate the need for contrast agent injection.
Warren and co-workers 9,10 first proposed intermolecular zero-quantum coherence ZQC imaging which is insensitive to the magnetic field inhomogeneity and has a relatively higher signal-to-noise ratio SNR than other MQCs.
They have obtained ZQC images with varying contrast which reveal structural features not seen in conventional MR images Navon and co-workers 16 used 1 H double-quantum filtered DQF MRI to detect molecules associated with ordered structures, thus identifying a new type of contrast. The method, however, only detects signals from semisolid constituents and is specific for imaging of connective tissues such as cartilage and tendons.
This method will not be discussed here. Based on classical demagnetization field theory, van Zijl and co-workers 17 attempted to form an image from the second spin-echo, but found that the image had a very low SNR and no detectable contrast even at the high field strength of 4.
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Recently, Bifone et al. However, the sensitivity of the detected signal was too low for MRI. We noticed, however, that the experimental parameters for the acquisition of the signal from the DQCs were not optimized in these previous reports 17, The potential applications of the intermolecular MQC as a new image contrast can be properly evaluated only when signals at acceptable levels can be obtained with designs of optimal imaging sequences for the MQC imaging. The purpose of this article is to investigate the characteristics of DQCs and their feasibility for human brain imaging using a clinical MRI scanner.
We analyzed the behaviors of MQCs using a combination of the quantum and classical formalisms. We calculated the optimal signal sensitivity of the MQCs at different field strengths, and discuss the effect of the multiple-quantum relaxation processes during the t 1 evolution in the CRAZED-like sequences , since it may provide a new contrast mechanism in MQC MRI.
A DQC imaging sequence with some experimental optimization was designed to fully utilize the available signal intensity from DQCs and to improve the contrast in imaging. Multislice human brain DQC images were obtained successfully for the first time at 1.