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At that point, both Canada and Australia would affirm the principle that the defence of their nations was best achieved as far away from their own shores as possible. What is more, the absence of any formally-established mechanisms for cooperation and combined planning left Canadian and Australian policymakers excessively at the mercy of strong personalities within their bureaucracies, and the vagaries of shifting US foreign and defence policy.
Pre-occupied with their immediate self-interests, Canadian and Australian policy-makers were unable to see the longer-term benefits and mutual self-interest of closer cooperation with each other. Such cooperation conceivably would have given both countries greater diplomatic leverage to further their own national interests. At the outset of the Korean War, the Australian government committed itself to an emergency Three Year Defence Plan, and the expansion of the Army, including the introduction of National Service for home defence only.
This number would grow to 29, during the Korean War supplemented by 29, National Servicemen per year trained for homeland defence and the Citizen Military Forces. In attempting to do so, they acted in concert with other powers of like purpose, and their instrument was the United Nations itself. They met with only marginal success They also reflect a continuing contrast in the greater willingness of Australia to gain political mileage from its relatively small contributions of expeditionary forces. As a classified official Canadian report observed in We prefer not to make commitments we are not reasonably certain we can carry out.
For this reason we frequently have no definite policy on a question until almost the last minute. This makes it difficult for our representatives to engage in discussion with the Americans before American policy has become too firm to be altered Despite what we have done and are planning to do This puts us on the defensive in our dealings with Washington and leads us to adopt what may be an unduly sensitive attitude. In the meantime, Australia had faced a federal election in December , and the Chifley Labour government had been replaced by a Liberal conservative government led by Robert Menzies.
Ironically, like the St. Laurent was concerned about the threat in Europe. Australia thus announced a contribution, seeing that a commitment of forces to the conflict would have a positive diplomatic effect on its relationship with the United States. Thereafter, under Menzies, Australia quickly committed a squadron of aircraft and several ships to the conflict.
These men were credited with a total of more than twenty Russian-made jet fighters destroyed or damaged. Having stationed forces as the lead participant in the British Commonwealth Occupation Force in Japan known as BCOF since , Australia was relatively well placed to promptly contribute air, sea and ground elements to the conflict, even though the force had been scaled back in and the skeleton force that remained was about to completely withdraw as war broke out in Korea.
Australian and Canadian naval ships also joined the fight early on, and comfortably integrated under the operational control of the Royal Navy in the Yellow Sea, or in Task Force 77, under the United States Navy, in the Sea of Japan. That greater awareness sprang in part from the fact that Australia announced its commitment, along with the British and New Zealanders, before Canada did.
In fact the announcements from these three countries prompted the Canadian Cabinet to review the Canadian position. Painting by Robert Taylor. This formation for the most part used common British-pattern equipment and organizations, and included infantry battalions from Australia, Canada, England and Scotland, as well as a New Zealand field artillery regiment and an Indian field ambulance.
The Canadians had contemplated re-equipping with items of US origin, but with the majority of the force consisting of Second World War veterans, most of their expertise would have been nullified by having to retrain on unfamiliar equipment. Up to that time there had been no record of any other brigade—or force of similar size—composed of so many contingents of different Commonwealth countries.
In the meantime, from February onwards, following the arrival of 2 PPCLI in Korea, the Australian and Canadian land forces fought alongside each other for the first time since The battle was fought on a cleft between two promontories that marked one of the invasion routes into South Korea. Intelligence reports indicated that the attack had been launched by an estimated 6, troops from two Chinese regiments. Subsequently, Canada and Australia both contributed forces to the only integrated ground formation of Commonwealth countries — the 1st Commonwealth Division — in mid This occurred despite the St.
The Division included an integrated British, Canadian, Australian and New Zealand headquarters as well as divisional and line-of communications signals units. The division achieved a remarkable degree of homogeneity. A formidable fighting force of over 20, all ranks, it remained to the end of hostilities a key formation along the line of hills defending the 38th parallel. In addition, the predominantly British divisional support units incorporated Canadian, Australian, New Zealand and Indian members in their organizations.
All these failings can be linked to the absence of an effective patrol doctrine. Our tactics have a stereotyped quality that deprives us of initiative and forewarns the enemy. We rarely trick the Chinaman. We do not use deception and have lost our aggressive spirit.
Commanders and men are dug-out minded. The fear of receiving casualties deadens our reactions and lessens our effort. We are thoroughly defensive minded but not thorough in our defence. Commonwealth Division HQ never imposed a uniform defensive doctrine along its front. Allard was active in rectifying many of the faults he observed in the third rotation of battalions on assuming command.
Also, as alluded to earlier, during this period both had started shifting to equipment, if not doctrine, of US origin. However, the purchase of US equipment by both countries was kept to a minimum due to political and economic constraints arising from adverse national balance of payments that favoured the United States.
This disparity between the Australians and Canadians was most evident in terms of the contrasting financial arrangements. Canada was not a member of the Sterling Area and thus felt financially unconstrained by the arrangements made under BCOF. In addition, Canadians were certainly not attracted to the diet of mutton, bully beef and biscuits to which the Australians, New Zealanders and Britons were subjected. Not surprisingly therefore, the Canadians were alone among the Commonwealth units in making regular use of American food rations.
This was particularly the case given the plethora of other national contingents — each with unique requirements that had to be imposed on the American supply system. In addition, tactical differences between the Americans and the Commonwealth forces were particularly evident. These lines were complemented by strongly held outposts that invited attack and resulted in heavy American casualties. When Commonwealth and American units replaced each other on the front, the result was a great deal of alteration of positions, with much unnecessary digging and filling.
On the Hook, for instance, such alterations resulted in a compromise in the defensive positions that would be exposed by Chinese attacks. For the Commonwealth troops, the view was held that any battle which caused equal casualties on both sides left the Chinese with the advantage. Such inclinations reflected a seeming reluctance to trust non-commissioned officers and a pre-disposition to micro-manage minor tactical incidents. But exposure to this approach to warfare discouraged Canadians and Australians from abandoning their British-derived tactics in favour of the more expensive and resource-consuming US examples.
By late , the entire 25th Canadian Infantry Brigade had deployed to Korea. In August , Brigadier F. Fleury had been appointed the senior Canadian officer in the Korean theatre. Fleury had been invited to be the BCF-K Chief of Staff, and was eager to accept the appointment, but Canadian authorities preferred to limit his responsibilities, fearing such responsibilities would undermine his independence in safeguarding Canadian interests.
After the armistice, Canadian and Australian troops would remain alongside each other as part of the composite Commonwealth force until the major combat units returned home in and the final elements were withdrawn in In the end, 26, Canadians served in Korea, with casualties including dead and 32 captured. Australia suffered killed and 29 taken prisoner.
Chinese and North Korean casualties were likely more than a million, while United Nations casualties numbered some ,, of whom 33, were Americans killed. South Korea suffered 66, soldiers killed. On the diplomatic front, Canada and Australia were included in the United Nations Committee of Sixteen, which started meeting in Washington in January The Canadians, British, and Australians were especially close and often lunched together beforehand for general discussion, but the views even of these three were seldom unanimous.
Canadian diplomacy during the Korean War can be interpreted very largely as a manifestation of the attempt to support the core, while simultaneously containing the extremities of American policy, and to ensure that military forces operating under UN auspices, but delegated to US command, were prevented from being drawn into a larger Asian war The central preoccupation of senior Canadian policy-makers was Complementing the diplomatic manoeuvring was the tactical actions of troops such as the Canadians and Australians that proved so costly in lives, but which also had some significant strategic effects.
The ANZUS Pact had become negotiable thanks to the re-assessment of American strategic security interests following the outbreak of the Korean War and thanks to the military cooperation offered to the United States in conducting it. Later, as a concession to the new government and a way to increase their numbers, France agreed to the formation of the Vietnamese National Army commanded by Vietnamese officers.
These troops were used mostly to garrison quiet sectors, so French forces would be available for combat. With the triumph of the communists in China's civil war, the Vietnamese communists gained a major political ally on their northern border, supporting them with weapons and supplies. Giap re-organized his local irregular forces into five full conventional infantry divisions, the th, th, th, th and the th.
The war began to intensify when Giap went on the offensive, attacking isolated French bases along the Chinese border. The United States began to give military aid to France in the form of weaponry and military observers. The Cold War was turning 'hot' in East Asia, and the American government feared communist domination of the entire region would have deep implications for American interests. By the time the remains of the garrisons reached the safety of the Red River Delta , 4, French troops had been killed, captured or missing in action and 2, wounded out of a total garrison force of over 10, Also lost were 13 artillery pieces, mortars, trucks, machine guns, 1, submachine guns and 8, rifles destroyed or captured during the fighting.
The year also marked the first time that napalm was ever used in Vietnam this type of weapon was supplied by the U. This led to a period of success for the French. Caught for the first time in the open and actually forced to fight the French head-on, without the ability to quickly hide and retreat, they were mown down by concentrated French artillery and machine gun fire.
The th Division, composed of 11, men, with the partly rebuilt th and th Divisions in reserve, went forward and were beaten in bitter hand-to-hand fighting against French troops. The attacks fared no better and the three divisions lost heavily. However, any benefit this may have reaped for France was negated by the increasing domestic opposition to the war in France. In January, General de Lattre fell ill from cancer and had to return to France for treatment. He died there shortly thereafter and was replaced by General Raoul Salan as the overall commander of French forces in Indochina.
Each side lost nearly 5, men in this campaign, and it showed that the war was far from over. There were continued raids, skirmishes and guerrilla attacks, but through most of the rest of the year each side withdrew to prepare for larger operations.
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He planned to wait until their supply lines were overextended and then cut them off from the Red River Delta. The road was cleared after a bayonet charge by the Indochinese March Battalion, and the withdrawal could continue. The French lost around 1, men during the whole operation, most of them during the Chan Muong ambush. The operation was partially successful, proving that the French could strike out at targets outside the De Lattre Line.
The Indochina Refugee Crisis
He reported to the French government " The operation was a tactical success for the French. By , despite official propaganda presenting the war as a " crusade against communism ",   the war in Indochina was still growing unpopular with the French public. The political stagnation of the Fourth Republic meant that France was unable to extract itself from the conflict. The artillery damaged both the main and secondary airfields that the French were using to fly in supplies. With defeat imminent, the French sought to hold on until the opening of the Geneva peace meeting on April The last French offensive took place on May 4, but it was ineffective.
Canada's Fighting Pilots
The final fall took two days, May 6 and 7, during which the French fought on but were eventually overrun by a huge frontal assault. A formal order was given to not use the white flag so that the action would be considered a ceasefire instead of a surrender. At least 2, members of the 20,strong French forces died, and another 1, were reported missing after the battle, and 11, were captured. Of the 50, or so Vietnamese soldiers thought to be involved, there were an estimated 4, to 8, killed and another 9,—15, wounded.
At the same time, Giap launched some offensives against the delta, but they all failed. In August Operation Passage to Freedom began, consisting of the evacuation of Catholic and loyalist Vietnamese civilians from communist North Vietnamese persecution. The Geneva Conference on July 21, , recognized the 17th parallel north as a " provisional military demarcation line ", temporarily dividing the country into two zones, communist North Vietnam and pro-Western South Vietnam.
Today it seems we can be reunited in a will for peace that may express the aspirations of our country Since already several years, a compromise peace, a peace negotiated with the opponent seemed to me commanded by the facts, while it commanded, in return, to put back in order our finances, the recovery of our economy and its expansion. Because this war placed on our country an unbearable burden. And here appears today a new and formidable threat: if the Indochina conflict is not resolved — and settled very fast — it is the risk of war, of international war and maybe atomic , that we must foresee.
It is because I wanted a better peace that I wanted it earlier, when we had more assets. But even now there is some renouncings or abandons that the situation does not comprise. France does not have to accept and will not accept settlement which would be incompatible with its more vital interests [applauding on certain seats of the Assembly on the left and at the extreme right]. France will remain present in Far-Orient. Neither our allies, nor our opponents must conserve the least doubt on the signification of our determination.
A negotiation has been engaged in Geneva I have longly studied the report My conviction that a pacific settlement of the conflict is possible has been confirmed. A "cease-fire" must henceforth intervene quickly. The government which I will form will fix itself — and will fix to its opponents — a delay of 4 weeks to reach it.
We are today on 17th of June. I will present myself before you before the 20th of July If no satisfying solution has been reached at this date, you will be freed from the contract which would have tied us together, and my government will give its dismissal to the President of the Republic. The Geneva Accords promised elections in to determine a national government for a united Vietnam. With American support, in Diem used a referendum to remove the former Emperor and declare himself the president of the Republic of Vietnam.
North Vietnam also invaded and occupied portions of Laos to assist in supplying the National Liberation Front guerrillas fighting in South Vietnam. This had the effect of weakening the regime, with the two most significant movements of this period, Communism and Gaullism , in opposition.
Unlikely alliances had to be made between left- and right-wing parties in order to form a government invested by the National Assembly, resulting in parliamentary instability , with 14 prime ministers in succession between and 's Battle of Dien Bien Phu.
A strong anti-war movement came into existence in France driven mostly by the then-powerful French Communist Party outpowering the socialists and its young militant associations, major trade unions such as the General Confederation of Labour , and notable leftist intellectuals. Later, on April 28, , Joliot-Curie would be dismissed from the military and civilian Atomic Energy Commission for political reasons.
Young communist militants UJRF were also accused of sabotage actions like the famous Henri Martin affair and the case of Raymonde Dien , who was jailed one year for having blocked an ammunition train, with the help of other militants, in order to prevent the supply of French forces in Indochina in February Even ammunition sabotage by PCF agents has been reported, such as grenades exploding in the hands of legionaries.
At this session tension was so high between politicians that fighting ensued in the assembly following communist deputees' speeches against the Indochinese policy. On May 5 communist Ministers were dismissed from the government, marking the end of Tripartism. Emerging media played their role. The war ended in but its sequel started in French Algeria where the French Communist Party played an even stronger role by supplying the National Liberation Front FLN rebels with intelligence documents and financial aid. They were called " the suitcase carriers " les porteurs de valises. In the latest days of the siege, non-paratrooper soldiers from all army corps from cavalry to infantry to artillery dropped for the first and last time of their life to support their comrades.
A few hours after the French Union defeat at Dien Bien Phu in May , United States Secretary of State John Foster Dulles made an official speech depicting the "tragic event" and "its defense for fifty seven days and nights will remain in History as one of the most heroic of all time. The Viet Minh victory in the war had an inspirational effect to independence movements in various French colonies worldwide, most notably the FLN in Algeria.
Benyoucef Benkhedda , later became the head of the Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic, praised the Viet Minh feat at Dien Bien Phu as "a powerful incentive to all who thought immediate insurrection the only possible strategy". By , France headed the French Union. The Union gathered combatants from almost all French territories made of colonies, protectorates and associated states Madagascar , Senegal, Tunisia , etc.
About , of the , French troops were Indochinese, almost all of whom were used in conventional units. Senegalese and other African troops were sent to fight in Indochina. Some African alumni were trained in the Infantry Instruction Center no. Morocco was a French protectorate and sent troops to support the French effort in Indochina. As a French protectorate, Bizerte , Tunisia, was a major French base. Part of French Indochina, then part of the French Union and later an associated state, Laos fought the communists along with French forces.
The role played by Laotian troops in the conflict was depicted by veteran Pierre Schoendoerffer's famous th Platoon released in Such deserters were called the Nam Yum rats by Bigeard during the siege, as they hid close to the Nam Yum river during the day and searched at night for supply drops. They were captured in enemy-controlled villages, and those who refused to join the State of Vietnam's army were considered prisoners or used as coolies to support a given regiment.
These Japanese stayed behind in Indochina soon after World War II concluded in out of a peak number of 50,—the majority of which were repatriated to Japan by the then occupying British. Some of the Japanese were ex- Kenpeitai who were wanted for questioning by Allied authorities.
Giap arranged for them all to receive Vietnamese citizenship and false identification papers. A few, however, actively led Vietnamese forces into combat. One point that the French had a major problem with was the concept of "sanctuary". So long as the anti-colonial revolutionaries who are fighting a guerrilla war have a sanctuary, in which they can hide out, rest and recuperate after losses and store supplies and necessary material, it is almost impossible and highly unlikely for any foreign enemy or foe to ever destroy and defeat them.
Evidence of the PRC's secret aid and supplies were found hidden in caves during the French military's Operation Hirondelle in July On May 6, , during the siege against French forces at the valley at Dien Bien Phu, Soviet-supplied Katyusha MRLS were successfully fielded against French Union military outposts, destroying enemy troop formations and bases and lowering their morale levels.
At the beginning of the war, the U. Then the U. By , however, the United States became concerned about the spread of communism in Asia, particularly following the end of the Chinese Civil War, and began to strongly support the French as the two countries were bound by the Cold War Mutual Defense Programme. After the Moch— Marshall meeting of September 23, , in Washington, the United States started to support the French Union effort politically, logistically and financially.
Officially, US involvement did not include use of armed force. In May , after the capture of Hainan island by Chinese communist forces, U.
President Harry S. Truman began covertly authorizing direct financial assistance to the French, and on June 27, , after the outbreak of the Korean War, announced publicly that the U. It was feared in Washington that if Ho were to win the war, with his ties to the Soviet Union, he would establish a puppet state with Moscow with the Soviets ultimately controlling Vietnamese affairs. The prospect of a communist-dominated Southeast Asia was enough to spur the U. On June 30, , the first U. Later, in , U. President Dwight D. Eisenhower explained the escalation risk, introducing what he referred to as the "domino principle", which eventually became the concept of domino theory.
The F4U-7s were actually purchased by the U. They were supplemented by 25 ex-U. Twenty four Central Intelligence Agency Civil Air Transport pilots supplied the French Union garrison during the siege of Dien Bien Phu by airlifting paratroopers, ammunition, artillery pieces, tons of barbed wire, medics and other military materiel. McGovern, Jr. In August , in support to the French navy and the merchant navy, the U.
The Indochina Refugee Crisis | Foreign Affairs
Up to 1 million Vietnamese civilians were transported from North to South during this period,  with around one tenth of that number moving in the opposite direction. Although a kind of taboo in France, "the dirty war" has been featured in various films, books and songs.
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Since its declassification in the s, television documentaries have been released using new perspectives about the U. The famous Communist propagandist Roman Karmen was in charge of the media exploitation of the battle of Dien Bien Phu. Hollywood made a film about Dien Bien Phu in , Jump into Hell , directed by David Butler and scripted by Irving Wallace , before his fame as a bestselling novelist. Hollywood also made several films about the war, Robert Florey 's Rogues' Regiment Samuel Fuller 's China Gate The French censor cut some violent scenes and made the director change the end of his movie which was seen as " too pessismistic".
Schoendoerffer has since become a media specialist about the Indochina War and has focused his production on realistic war movies. Graham Greene 's novel The Quiet American takes place during this war. A Vietnamese software developer made a first-person-shooter videogame called From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Indochina Wars. Indochina Wars. First Indochina War. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Play media.
Roots of the Vietnam War
Further information: Geneva Conference and Partition of Vietnam. Further information: French Union. Further information: Japanese holdout. Main article: Operation Passage to Freedom. La Guerre d'Indochine — Paris: Seuil. How Pol Pot Came to Power. London: Verso, Retrieved August 19, Archived from the original on December 2, Carlise Barracks, Pennsylvania.
Embers of War: the fall of an empire and the making of America's Vietnam. Random House. London: Osprey Publishing. Historiska Media, p. Retrieved July 29, Open Vault. Retrieved October 15, A History of Laos. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. Patti, ". Tokyo foundation. October Retrieved June 10, May East Asia: A New History.
Britain in Vietnam: prelude to disaster, Psychology Press. Retrieved November 28, The tragedy of the Vietnam War: a South Vietnamese officer's analysis. Vietnam how the war began. University of California Press. Elizabeth Jane Errington; B. McKercher eds.