- Indo-European etymology : List with all references
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Notice the pattern: -teen translates to -zehn , and -ty to -zig. There is one big problem with the numbers: in German the unit position comes before the tens and is connected by und and. One exception is eins which becomes ein- in 21, 31, 41, etc. German is not the only language with this "reverse" order of numbers: Danish another Germanic language and Arabic do it the same way.
To go straight to the lesson test, go here. The test will have four parts to it: Grammar 79 points , Translating 95 points , Reading Comprehension 20 points , Vocabulary 20 points , and Previous Topics 10 points in that order. The Grammar section will test your ability to know the verbs from this lesson and its various versions, to know articles - the genders of them and the correct usage of them, and correct word order.
The Translating section is worth the most points, and it too has three sections. You must know the translations for sentences and phrases going from English to German, and be able to take a German dialogue and translate it back into English. Also you must know the translation from Numbers to German.
The third section, Reading Comprehension, is Comprehension Questions you must know how to read the conversion and after reading you will be asked question on the previous conversion. The fourth section is a vocabulary section. You get 20 English words on the left and 20 German words on the right, and be asked to match them.
To study for that, check out the flashcards related to this lesson at FlashcardExchange. The last section, Previous Topics, is a quick review on Lesson 1 to get ready for this section, just look at some past notes or go to Lesson 1 and study. That is the whole test. Take it! As you know from the introduction , in German, there are four cases. Three are used often. The first, Nominative Case , you learned in Lesson 1. It covers the subject , and the predicate noun in "He is noun. The second, the Accusative Case , you will learn now. It covers the direct object and the object of several prepositions.
The third, the Dative Case will be taught later on. It covers the indirect object and the object of many other prepositions. The object of a sentence will be in accusative case. In, "You hurt me. However related words, such as possessives and the kein- words that you will learn later this lesson, will end in eine for plurals. Therefore above, der Hamburger goes to den Hamburger and ein Hamburger goes to einen Hamburger when the hamburger is the direct object, such as in "Er hat einen Hamburger.
If you are getting confused, it's fine. This topic is one of the hardest for English speakers to grasp. Here are some solutions:. To find out the case of something, first find the verb. The verb rules the sentence. Everything revolves around it. Next you find the subject of the sentence. The subject is always in the Nominative Case , so it takes on the der, die, das, die, or ein, eine, ein.
Now you look back at the verb. If it is a being verb am, are, is, etc. An easy way to figure this out is to write an equation. If it can't be replaced by an equals sign, refer to the next paragraph. The predicate noun is also always in the Nominative Case , so the same rules apply to it. If the verb of the sentence is an action verb playing, throwing, making, eating , find what the subject is doing the verb to. For example, if the verb is "makes" macht , you look for what is being made. That is the direct object. The direct object is always in the Accusative Case , so it takes on the den, die, das, die, or einen, eine, ein.
The indefinite articles, when you just look at their endings, select e, -, e for nominative case, and en, e, -, e for accusative. Remember, between nominative and accusative, the only third-person change is in the masculine form. The pronouns experience a much bigger change than the articles. This is also true in English, as the articles a, an, the do not change ever, but I goes to me , we goes to us , etc. Not everything is the same, though.
While me is mich and us is uns , the second and third persons undergo different changes. In third person, as in the articles, the only change is in masculine singular. Following the "der goes to den" rule, er goes to ihn when in the accusative case. The second person in English never changes. In German, du goes to dich and ihr goes to euch. Sie , the formal version of either, stays the same.
Remember, Sie 2nd person formal and sie 3rd person plural only differ in their meanings and the fact that the former is capitalized and the latter is not. This stays true throughout German grammar. Note: This is just a quick lesson in English grammar applied into German.
If you already know all about antecedents in English, skip the first paragraph. When using a pronoun, you have to know what it is for it to work. There are some rare exceptions, such as in mysteries or drama, but otherwise this is always true. Sometimes in dialogue this is taken care of by pointing or making some other gesture, but most of the time, the pronoun modifies something already mentioned.jeannieralston.com/dip-zithromax-and-chloroquine.php
Indo-European etymology : List with all references
In German this is very useful. You can't simply say 'it' any more. Many food words are masculine and feminine, and when you turn them into pronouns, they turn into 'he', 'she', 'him', and 'her', not always 'it'. For example, the sentence "The cheeseburger tastes good. It's very crunchy. He's very crunchy. Why is it "he"? This is where the antecedent comes in. Because there are foods that are masculine and feminine in German, you can't assume the 'es'. You have to look back at the previous sentence, at the antecedent, der Cheeseburger.
Of these five verbs, only trinken and bekommen are regular. Essen is irregular that's what the "I" means. Do you remember from the last lesson 'lesen' and 'sehen'? Well essen experiences the same change, except that it changes to 'i', not 'ie'. Also, it acts the same as 'lesen' in the du-form: You don't have three s's in a row. Isst sounds and looks a lot like ist. The minute difference happens to be in the way you pronounce the s. When you mean eats it is sometimes an overstressed hissing i. In normal life Germans, too, can only tell which verb is meant from knowing the context.
The last two verbs marked M are modals. They will be discussed in the next section. In the introduction , you learned that German has no helping verbs. Instead, they have modals , words that basically do the same thing. Modals are conjugated very differently from normal verbs. Most modals experience a vowel change from singular to plural, and the rest is the same.
Here is the complete conjugation:. However, will can also mean an intent or a document showing what one wants to happen. So it is not so different from 'to want' as possibly originally presumed. This is very important. When you need to use another verb with a modal such as expressing you would like or want to perform an action , the sentence's word order is somewhat different than it would be in English.
In English, you would state the subject pronoun such as "I" , an English equivalent to the modal verb such as "want" , the action you want to perform such as "to eat" and then what the action will be performed on such as "hamburger" , making the sentence "I want to eat a hamburger. In German, instead of saying, "I'm hungry. Here are the German translations of the corresponding nouns:.
Like in English, these two words do not have a plural form. When using them, you don't need to worry about the 'der'; you can just say, "Ich habe Hunger" to say "I am hungry" and "Ich habe keinen Hunger" for "I am not hungry. Somewhat archaic but still in use are the adjectives hungrig and durstig. In Lesson 1 , you learned how to talk formally, using phrases like "Guten Morgen! There are, however, a few words that are 'survival words' in Germany, specifically:. Twice you have been taught that the ending of the indefinite article for plurals would be eine for Nominative and Accusative cases , if there was an indefinite article for plurals.
Now that lesson applies. The k ein-words have the same endings as the ein-words, and they mean the opposite: no, not any, none. For example, "kein Cheeseburger" means "no cheeseburger". Notice the 'e' at the end of 'keine'. There are many restaurants you might find in Germany. Much like in English-speaking countries, you would more likely use the name of the restaurant than name what kind of restaurant. If you want to address the wish to eat a certain food, there are two ways:.
There are few American restaurants, in Germany and they are mostly referred to as " American Diner", so it is not used like "zum Italiener". You read at the beginning of this lesson that the Accusative Case covers the direct object and the objects of some prepositions. Here are those prepositions that always fall under Accusative Case. You learned um last lesson, and ohne earlier this lesson. Up until this point, you have only worried about the Accusative Case in third person.
Here's an example:. In German as in English there are several ways of telling how food tastes. You can do this with 'gut' and 'schlecht' from Lesson 1 to say:. But this is bland. Hopefully the food has more flavor than the description of it. You can use the following words to more colorfully describe how the cheeseburger tastes:.
The first and second persons really shouldn't be used. No one is going to say, "You guys taste salty" or "I taste creamy. You can use 'schmeckt' and 'schmecken' or 'ist' and 'sind' to state how the food tastes. Just use whichever one you would use in English and it'll usually be correct. Although the English meaning of schmecken is simply to taste , "Schmeckt der Cheeseburger?
In other words, schmecken alone can mean to taste good. You could be talking about a cheeseburger that is not directly in front of you. It just isn't clear. Now, if you said, " This cheeseburger tastes good. It changes forms in different situations: different genders and different cases.
It can also mean 'these' when modifying a plural. Here are its forms:. As you can see, dieser is only appropriate for modifying masculine nouns in nominative case. But 'Cheeseburger', which is masculine, is the subject of the sentence, "Dieser Cheeseburger schmeckt gut. Jeder means 'every'. It acts exactly like 'dieser' in its endings, so it should be easy to remember.
Here are the different forms:. Notice the absence of the plural form. When you think about this, it's the same in English: no one says 'every books'. However, because the general subject has to be specified, welcher must be inflected before use: "Welcher Hamburger ist seine? You might want to say 'every day', 'this week', 'every morning', or 'which Tuesday night?
But to do this, not only do you need to know the jeder-forms, but also the genders of the times and the cases. The second one is easy: Whenever you do something at a certain time, that time is put into Accusative Case. Last lesson, you learned the gender of one time: der Tag. So now you know everything to say 'diesen Tag', 'jeden Tag', and 'welchen Tag? Here are the cases of all the times in Lesson 2 :. When extending to 'which Tuesday night? Likewise, you can say 'every June' the same as 'every month': 'jeden Juni'.
Look at the second sentence of each of these German dialogues. What's missing? That's right, instead of "Der Cheeseburger schmeckt sehr gut. We're left with just the articles, only in this case, they aren't articles. They're demonstrative pronouns. Demonstrative pronouns aren't scary. They're just the same as the normal pronouns, only they give more oomph to the sentence. They can be translated as either 'this' or 'that' "I'd like a cheeseburger. That tastes very good. These I like. Demonstrative pronouns are exactly the same as the definite articles well, there is one change in dative, but that will be covered in Lesson 7.
If you are not sure of the gender meaning in context, the speaker doesn't know, not that you've forgotten that it's 'der Cheeseburger' , use 'das', like in "Was ist das? One Euro is worth Cents. If you say "Ich habe vier Euros. Because the backsides of euro coins look different in each country, many people in Europe have started collecting foreign euro coins.
In this case you can say "Ich habe irische Euros. There is not yet a rule whether or not the word "Cent" has a different plural form. The majority of Germans are using the word "Cent" as a plural form, but when they don't it is simply "Cents". For "Cent" there are two pronunciations: you can either pronounce it as in English or you say "tzent".
The latter version seems to be preferred by older people. You can also say, " Herr Ober , die Rechnung bitte! The term "der Ober" is the waiter, but this sounds very old fashioned and is hardly ever used today. To address the waiter you would probably say "Entschuldigen Sie, The test will be located here , but the test for this lesson is not yet completed.
In fact, almost all words with the ending -chen are neuter. In every Lesson from 7 - 15 there is going to be a featured German-Speaking city, which will be the theme of the lesson. For 7 - 8 it is Berlin. Also in each lesson there will be facts, so if you ever travel to a German-Speaking country, it'll be like you are a native!
That means that they are 6 hours ahead of E. If it's pm in New York City, it's pm or locally. Please note that Germany changes to and from daylight-saving time a few weeks before the U. In contrast to many other countries where waiters sometime 'live on the tips' in German-speaking countries service personnel always receive a regular wage usually per hour and the tip is always an extra for good service.
Not to give a tip will probably give the waiter the impression that either service or product were not that good and you are too polite to admit this, but not tipping is not considered 'rude'. Also, tipping is only expected when you get served, i.
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Only when having a large party, like celebrating your birthday in a restaurant, you do extra tipping. In many restaurants it is normal the tip is shared with the kitchen personnel. Paying with credit card or debit card makes tipping difficult, because there is no line on the bill to fill in the tip. Always tip when paying, don't leave money on the table.
There are two major shopping locations. It continues eastwards for about three hundred yards where you can visit KaDeWe , the biggest department store in Europe. Shops are generally open 9am-8pm Monday through Saturday. In the outskirts most shops close at 4pm on Saturdays.
There is a lot to say about shopping, places to shop at, money and items to buy. In this lesson we will cover most of it. There are two big shopping locations in Berlin. Another shopping location is das KaDeWe, an upscale department store in Germany. It has six floors, and Is also called "The department store of the west" Kaufhaus des Westens because it is the largest and most magnificent department store on continental Europe. Since we already have most of the general shopping phrases and vocabulary down, we are going to get into more detail in the next few sections. First is electronics: it might seem a little sparse, but electronics and much other stuff will be featured in Lesson If you look at the word order of this sentence, you will see that you've already learned everything you need to make these sentences, and you, yourself can customize these sentences if you want.
The bedding section is also quite bare, but that is because it will be discussed further in Lesson Currently 1 EUR is 1. Even though in the vocabulary we list the 1, 2, 5, 10, Euro there are more Euro notes. The twenty, fifty, two hundred, and five hundred Euro notes are the ones we didn't list, also there are cent coins. In written German, a comma is used e.
The reverse is also true. Where as English uses a comma to split up large numbers, German uses a dot. Now if you try something on or you're looking for a soft shirt with a tight fit, you find it, feel it, try it on, but it's fairly expensive you might say this In English: The shirt looks great!
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The shirt feels soft, fits tight. The shirt is very comfortable. How much does it cost? Oh no! The shirt is expensive! In German: Das Hemd sieht prima aus! Das Hemd ist sehr bequem. Wieviel kostet es? Oh nein! Das Hemd ist teuer! Now, the bold words are verbs that are one part in describing how the shirt is. The other half of describing it is the adjectives like soft, tight, great, etc.
And as you can see the verb "looks" is separable, but we will get into that later. And now getting into verbs - here are some of the verbs, and also some of these are Separable-Prefix Verbs, like aussehen, anprobieren, and anhaben. But we will study those in more detail later.
Also we will be learning about "tragen". Many German verbs change their meaning by adding prefixs, which are often preposition such as ab-, an-, auf-, aus-, bei-, ein-, mit-, vor-, or zu-. The verbs anhaben to wear and aussehen to look are both verbs with separable trennbar prefixes. That is, when used next to the subject pronoun, the prefix is separated from the verb and put at the end of the sentence or clause.
Or, better put, In the present tense and imperative, the prefix is separated from the infinitive stem. However, when the separable-prefix verb is put at the end of the sentence, such as when used with a modal verb, the verb in question and its prefix are not separated. Instead of "anhaben" the verb "tragen" is often used. The sentences from above would then be:. The verb "tragen" has two meanings: "to wear" and "to carry". So if someone says "Ich trage Schuhe" only the context will tell you whether the person is carrying the shoes in his hands or actually wearing them.
Tragen is a different kind of irregular verb -- one that not only changes at the end of the word, but also changes internally. Other verbs with similar conjugation patterns include fahren, graben, schaffen, and waschen. Color are also another great way to describe clothes like Das rote Hemd passt gut. Wir fahren in den Schwarzwald.
Die Reise war lang. There are many banks of all kinds throughout the country. Banks are open Mon-Fri 9ampm and pm. On Thursdays, they are open until or 6pm. Changing money is best done at a bank because their rates will be better than exchange services located at a Bureau de Change. Major post office branches and travel agents also offer currency exchange.
Germany is one of 15 European countries that have replaced their national currencies with the Euro, which is stronger to the U. Dollar, but weaker than the British Pound. Home is where the heart is, they say. And what is in the home? It'll give all vocabulary for the family, and later in a different section, you'll learn how to describe your brothers and sisters or any person! And now to get started lets do some vocabulary Now even though many of these are common phrases you and I would say in everyday life, some of these are rather used when you are on a visit to grandmother's, or things your mother would say.
Maybe you notice some of these in the dialogue. Now you might be asking "How am I going to speak fluent German, if I just learn phrases? Okay let's get started on these common phrases Some very conservative families might still use Sie with grandparents or even parents! This is sometimes practiced in families of nobility or exterritorial cultural islands in which older German customs have survived.
However, using "Sie" feels very outdated to the vast majority of people. In practically every family all members use du with each other. I can't describe in words how important this section of the lesson is. Even though you have already learned to describe to some degree, here we will introduce a new aspect of describing, and we will review. But how could we describe if we didn't have vocabulary? Here it is The verb used most often for describing is " to be " which we learned in the first lesson. Some examples are: He is wet, This is stupid, I am lazy.
But you do use other verbs like feel, look, etc. This lesson we will be sticking mostly with the verbs we've learned in the past. We will, however, learn one new verb. All sentences we will create will be in the nominative case. Okay, let's get started! In term of beauty, you can say four basic things. These aren't the all but these are the easiest and simplest ones. These two use the verb to be , and the next one will use the verb to look which would need something else in order to make sense.
And in the last sentence it says "ausgesehen. So since you get the idea of describing, let's learn a new verb! And the new verb is klingen which is to sound. As in "He sounds weird. It's works just like other verbs. Exactly like in English. For right now, that's all for describing things. We are going to have some small describing lessons with some parts of this lesson.
Okay we just went over the verb in the previous section. This will basically be a list that will help you memorize them better, and there is not a lot. The "Er sieht aus" is to show you it is a separable-prefix verb. This is also a large section of this lesson: nationality, and it's very important. There are many nationalities, too many to go over in this lesson, but you will learn more nationality as this level and book goes on.
Right now we are just going to have a vague little list, and as this section goes on there will be more. Finally, gentlemen, get ready to have your minds blown It is no surprise you can describe people with nationality, most times, it's stereotypical, like Norwegians are blonde, tall, etc. However you can just use it for what it is, a nationality. If you do describe people by nationality this will help. Okay, you should already know how to describe, right? This part we will get more in to detail later, but right it is an important part of describing people with nationality, even though in English we most times don't do this, in German they do.
The difference between nationality and language, like in English, French and French.
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This also is how it works for nationality describing by noun or adjective, which we are going to learn right now. There are two ways to describe someone. With a noun-based nationality word or an adjective-based nationality word. But note that in German the noun-based form is used more often. Now we are all familiar with the word " alt' ", which means old. And in English, to find out somebody's age we ask " How old are you? In German it is exactly the same. The " alt " kind of belongs to the interrogative adverb, so in both German and English it may be in front of the verb:.
To ask this important question in the 2nd person. First, we will learn the biggest question here, " How old are you? You should all ready get the pattern for this, but we are going to keep on doing this list, if you aren't sure of something or you are confused. So for the 3rd person Now with some people you might be able to guess their age, and you could ask them directly about it. This is usually pretty of rude, but it illustrates nicely how the phrase has to be changed if you ask a yes-no-question, so let's get started, anyway!
Note the inversed order between "Wie alt bist du? Note : 'Euer' is irregular. When 'euer' has to have a different ending the e before r is dropped, so it turns into 'eur-'. Don't let the weird order of the words disturb you, even if the phrase seems totally incomprehensible at first. I'll try to construct this bit by bit:. Note that the "to" is already included in the German word "rechnen". This is one of the main reasons why complicated conjugations can survive, they contain information that doesn't have to be expressed otherwise then To be a little more polite or at least seem like it, since our teacher probably wouldn't take a no for an answer.
This is another example for brevity by conjugation. Don't be discouraged, many Germans don't realize this, and many don't use the Konjunktiv correctly, if ever. This is a direct object, "Aufgabe" is in the accusative case. Because this is a feminine noun, this is not so obvious, but the structure is the same as in:. Now, we also have an adverbial expression of the place. This is an expression that defines the verb, thus ad-verbial. Note that the order expressions is widely interchangeable.
You can emphasize something by putting it closer to the end of the question. Note that after "zu" follows the dative case, so "der" is not the masculine but the feminine article. It is often used when writing legibly on a large, visible surface such as blackboard or a flipchart. So, as you might have guessed, plus and minus are the same as in English - they are just pronounced German.
The verbs "addieren" and "subtrahieren" are probably not difficult either This is also used in every day phrases, such as "mal habe ich dir gesagt Between single classes, there is usually a break of five minutes to allow teachers and students to go from one classroom to another. In most schools, classes such as German, English, History, Philosophy are taught in the classroom. Classes that use special equipment, such as all sciences, music and arts and of course computers and sport are being taught in a specialized lab classes.
Roughly every second break is 15 minutes long, and if there are lessons in the afternoon, there's often a break of 45 to 60 minutes for lunch. This sentence sounds strange. This is, because in everyday German, sometimes the verb gehen can be left out, if it is clear what is meant. Brandenburg Gate Brandenburg Gate is Berlin's most famous landmark. A symbol of Berlin and German division during the Cold War, it is now a national symbol of peace and unity. A former symbol of the divided city, it drew visitors who used to climb an observation platform in order to get a glimpse of the world behind the Iron Curtain, on the other side of the barren "death-strip" which separated East from West Berlin, geographically and politically.
It was here that on June 12, , Ronald Regan issued his stern command to his cold war adversary admonishing him with the words: "Mr. Gorbachov — tear down this wall! It was officially opened to traffic on December 22, and , people came to celebrate the occasion. Unfortunately this also resulted in severe damage to the monument which needed to be restored and was only officially reopened on October 3, Prussian sovereign Friedrich Wilhelm II was looking for a suitable architectural statement to enhance the approach into the Boulevard Unter den Linden.
The classical sandstone work is one of the masterpieces of this era and is the only surviving one of 18 previous city portals. The Quadriga, a sculpture representing the Goddess of Victory, by Johann Gottfried Schadow which can be spotted from a long distance was erected on the Gate in From to the statue was held captive in France as a Napoleonic trophy during the years of France and Prussia's military rivalry for imperial domination. Major sights at Brandenburg Gate When visiting the monument and before crossing over to the other side, the "Raum der Stille" Room of Silence situated on the north wing provides a restful place for a short break.
The Platz des At the height of the Berlin Crisis in U. It is today an iconic marker of territorial boundary and political division. Until the fall of the Berlin Wall on November 9, , it signified the border between West and East, Capitalism and Communism, freedom and confinement.
Checkpoint Charlie is a must-see sight in Berlin The spot remains a must-see sight in Berlin with huge historical and emotional resonance, even accounting for the fact that there is remarkably little left to recall the atmosphere of pre days. An enormous amount of debating went into deciding what should be left here and preserved for Berliners and visitors to see in the future. Checkpoint Charlie after the fall of the Wall The wooden barrack where visitors to the Russian Sector East Berlin were once obliged to pass through for vetting was removed.
Reconstruction has included a US Army guardhouse and a copy of the original border sign. The original white booth which served as the official gateway between East and West can be seen in the Allierten Museum in Berlin-Dahlem. Cobblestones mark the exact spot of the former border and the poignant photograph by Frank Thiel of an American and Soviet soldier can be seen here.
The Museum, known as Haus am Checkpoint Charlie, contains the best documentation available on the many escape attempts from East to West. The original Checkpoint sign is exhibited here. Booming city district at Checkpoint Charlie Ironically, the New Berlin has turned this area into an entry, rather than departure point, to a new kind of American sector.
After the Fall of the Wall, artists have turned it into the largest open-air gallery in the world with over one hundred paintings. It is the largest open-air gallery in the world with over one hundred original mural paintings. Galvanised by the extraordinary events which were changing the world, artists from all around the globe rushed to Berlin after the fall of the Wall, leaving a visual testimony of the joy and spirit of liberation which erupted at the time. East Side Gallery is a monument to freedom of expression Wall murals had previously been a highlight for visitors and a Berlin attraction for years but were only to be found on the western side of the Wall.
The artists transformed the grey concrete rearticulating this into a lasting expression of freedom and reconciliation. They have provided popular postcard material until today. The paintings which still reflect the patchwork, eclectic and bohemian atmosphere of Berlin today are a mixed bag of surreal images, political statements and graffiti-like effusions stretching from the Oberbaum Bridge to Ostbahnhof train station. Damaged by vandalism, pollution and weather conditions, the paintings were restored in by the same artists who originally created the works after the Fall of the Wall.
Gendarmenmarkt Gendarmenmarkt Mitte, Berlin Gendarmenmarkt in the Mitte district is arguably Berlin's most beautiful square. The "domes" refer to the domed tower structures erected in by architect Carl von Gontard. They were mainly intended to add stature and grandeur to the two buildings. Gendarmenmarkt: Name derives from Prussian regiment of Huguenots soldiers The square dates back to , part of King Friedrick I's plan for Friedrichstadt, an emerging new quarter of Berlin, where the recently expelled French Protestants or Huguenots had settled following the Edict of Potsdam in which granted them asylum in the Prussian capital.
The name is in fact of French origin as "Gens d'arms", which was a Prussian regiment consisting of Huguenots soldiers. In the German Dome rebuilt in the s and restored in it is possible to visit a permanent exhibition on the history of the German Parliament. The statue of Friedrich Schiller by Reinhold Begas set in the square's centre in was another victim of the Nazis purges. It was returned to East Berlin in after a long exile in the other half of the city. Gendarmenmarkt: Location of one of Berlin's most popular Christmas markets Gendarmenmarkt is also a great place to wander around and soak in the atmosphere.
Some of Berlin's most glamorous hotels and restaurants are in this part of town. Now part of re-built Mitte, it has become a lively urban space with its frequent performances at the concert hall. A lively Christmas market and ice rink opens for the entire festive season from the first of Advent to the New Year.
Neue Kirche Gendarmenmarkt Mitte, Berlin It holds an exhibition on parliamentary democracy in Germany. It is considered remarkable because of its five-sided floor plan. Severe damages during WWII In Friedrich's grandson, Friedrich the Great commissioned Carl von Gontard to build two non-functional domes for the existing churches to offset the Comedy Theatre next to them. Another victim of Allied bombings, the building was badly damaged during the war. The church and tower burned down in , and were slowly restored between and German Church permanent exhibition Since a German Parliament exhibition can be seen here entitled "Wege, Irrwege and Umwege" roughly translated as "Paths, Wrong Tracks and Detours" or the development of parliamentary democracy in Germany — ways and roundabouts.
No religious services are held here. Berlin The area, also known as the Scheunenviertel is one of Berlin's top entertainment hubs, popular with Berliners and visitors alike and a magnet for club-goers since the s. The energy of post-unification Germany, a quest for renewal and reinvention, found expression in cutting-edge creativity in the arts and fashion and state-of-the-art design. The result is an original, new entrepreneurial spirit characterised by an exuberant convergence of life with lifestyle. The expansion started around from an outer suburb known as Spandauer Vorstadt, located outside the Spandau City gate which already had its own church, the Sophienkirche as early as Friedrich Wilhelm I built a new city wall here and the former suburb became a new urban district belonging to Berlin.
Today's Hackescher Markt takes its name from the market built here by a Spandau city officer, Count von Hacke. Jewish migrants and French Huguenots at Hackescher Markt The influx of Jewish migrants and the exiled French Huguenots gave the district the cosmopolitan diversity which it never lost. Another name for the area, the Scheunenviertel barn district is associated today with up and coming art galleries and the more bohemian side of Berlin.
By , Berlin was the most densely populated city in Europe with 2 million inhabitants. In Kurt Berndt and August Endell, a property developer and architect team took over the property. The first courtyard Hof 1 was magnificently restored in art nouveau style with ceramic tiles designed by August Endell himself. The urban mix where the main areas of life, private residential space, work, entertainment and gastronomy could develop jointly in one living space has characterised this area for over a century.
Jacob Michael, the Jewish owner of the property before the War, was forced into exile by the Nazis in Confiscated as a foreign asset it was only finally returned to Jacob's legal heirs in Restoration began in under a consortium including a residents' association, private investors, local authorities, and was carried out by Berlin architects Weiss and Partner.
Only one memorial tombstone, that of Jewish enlightenment philosoph. Jewish Museum The Jewish Museum is one of the most striking examples of contemporay architecture in Berlin. The three buildings, two of which were designed by Libeskind, display two millennia of German-Jewish history. With over four million visitors since its gala opening on September 9, the museum is a stunning achievement in the architecture of cultural identity, a lasting expression of Jewish presence and dislocation and above all the attempt at integrating, physically and spiritually, the meaning of the Holocaust into the memory and consciousness of the city of Berlin.
The museum was meant above all as a new articulation of humanity in the history of Europe and of Berlin, an emblem of hope. In Daniel Libeskind's words, "it thematises and integrates for the first time in post-war Germany the history of the Jews in Germany, the repercussions of the Holocaust and spiritual displacement. It is also just a museum with exhibits on the walls".
Jewish Museum displays over years of Jewish history The permanent exhibition inaugurated in comprises over years of Jewish history, from Roman times to the present day, arranged in 14 sections documenting the development of Jewish life in Germany - its artistic, cultural and scientific contribution throughout the centuries.
The Museum first opened to the public as an empty building in autumn Over , visitors and Berliners came attracted by the building's aesthetic symbolism. Subsequently, a Jewish department was housed in the former Baroque courthouse, the Kollegienhaus, by Philipp Gerlach. The cornerstone for the Berlin Museum's extension was laid in following Libeskind's winning design for the planned Jewish department extension to the Berlin Museum, selected from amongst competition entries in June after a process lasting over twenty years.
Gábor Hamza: András Bertalan Schwarz (1886 – 1953)
Deconstructivist-style building illustrates Jewish history in Germany Libeskind's own name for the Jewish Museum project was 'Between the Lines'. Starting with the vision of two lines, the first straight broken and fragmented, the other tortuous but indefinitely continuous, he gave visual form to the elements of fragmentation coexisting with hope, continuity and connectivity, Jews and Germans, East and West, tradition and present.
Berlin's Holocaust Memorial, located in Mitte on a stretch of the former "death strip" where the Wall once stood near Brandenburg Gate, is Berlin's stunning monument to the Holocaust, dedicated to the Jewish victims of the Nazi genocide of World War II. Impressive in its awesome grey soberness, rather than sombreness, it includes an underground Ort der Information Information Centre located on the south-eastern side of the memorial grounds, accessible via two flights of stairs or a lift. Information Centre at the Memorial The square meters Information Centre complements the abstraction of the memorial with personal documentation about individuals and families.
This includes biographical details, recordings and information about memorial sites throughout Germany and Europe. Documenting the universal issue of genocide, the centre represents a central focus on the diverse memorial sites across Germany which stress the living memory aspect of remembrance. In Berlin an example of this is the Stolpersteine tripping stones initiative — plaques on street pavements, usually outside the house's main entrance, commemorating deported Jewish residents.
Its foundation stone was a Bundestag resolution passed on June 25, to erect a Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe. This was followed by years of discussion and deliberation, until the Monument was completed on May 8, US architect Peter Eisenman conceived the winning design consisting of rectangular blocks of concrete laid out in grid formation, recalling tombstones. The monument is open day and night and it is possible to walk through the concrete slabs at one's own pace. Visitors are not allowed to climb on them though, something which is particularly hard for younger visitors and small children to resist.
The effect is that of inner dislocation in a destabilising maze as the ground is uneven and the blocks vary in height and size. An ideal setting for quiet contemplation. Museum Island Mitte, Berlin. Museum Island is a unique ensemble of five museums on Spree Island in the district of Mitte in Berlin. Berlin's own Acropolis of the arts is considered unique because it illustrates the evolution of modern museum design over the course of the 20th century and its collections span six thousand years of human artistic endeavour. The first museum, the Altes Museum considered to be Karl Friedrich Schinkel's neoclassical masterpiece is Germany's oldest museum.
The development of the area as a museum complex and the construction of the other four museums stemmed from King Friedrich Wilhelm's romantic vision of a refuge of the arts and sciences similar to the Forum of ancient Rome. UNESCO defined it 'an outstanding example of the Enlightenment vision of making art publicly accessible, given material form in a central urban setting". Full-scale renovation of the Museum Island underway since The Master Plan for the full-scale renovation and modernisation of the area, adopted and underway since , aims to turn the site into a state-of-the-art cultural location.
Over million Euros have been earmarked to renovate the museum, which displays the Egyptian Papyrus collection and the Library of Antiquity and Nefertiti in much reduced circumstances in a reflecting glass box. Renowned for its sculpture collection and Museum of Byzantine Art, it finally reopened in after a five and a half years' renovation. The most well-known of the complex, Alfred Mussel's Pergamon Museum was built following the need for additional exhibit space to house the artefacts from the 19th century excavations of German archeologists in Pergamon and Asia Minor at a time when Heinrich Schliemann found Priam's treasure.
The Pergamon museum continues to attract one million visitors a year from all over the world to marvel at the Market Gate of Miletus and the Ishtar Gate. Due to extensive renovations, the Pergamon Altar hall is currently closed to visitors. It is scheduled to reopen in late Mitte, Berlin An important architectural monument of late 19th century Berlin, it is now home to the Centrum Judaicum. Built in , to seat people as the largest Jewish place of worship in Germany, the Neue Synagogue was literally a symbol of the thriving Jewish community.
With , Jewish citizens in , Berlin was the centre of Liberal Judaism. Centrum Judaicum Today the building houses the Centrum Judaicum foundation which opened in , an institution for the preservation of Jewish memory and tradition, a community congregation centre for study and teaching. The museum and information centre houses exhibits including Torahs and scrolls which were excavated as late as during the restoration phase. Only one prayer room remains in use today, with mixed seating in the reformed Judaism tradition. A guided tour is available here to see the open space which lies behind the restored facade of the building where the former huge, main Synagogue room once was.
A glass and steel structure secures the remaining fragments of masonry of the former synagogue. The original ground plan dimensions can be seen by a traced perimeter which give an idea of the size of the destroyed sections. It was consecrated in Potsdamer Platz has been redeveloped as the new centre of Berlin after the fall of the Wall. A bustling traffic intersection in the s, it became desolate after WW II and part of the Berlin's Potsdamer Platz is the most striking example of the urban renewal that turned Berlin into the "New Berlin" in the s although it is not, strictly-speaking, a square.
The area today consists of the three developments known as Daimler City , the Sony Centre and the Beisheim Centre , which literally transformed the dormant wasteland where the Berlin Wall stood between east and west Berlin until The debate around redeveloping Potsdamer Platz The challenge of rebuilding the heart of post Cold War Berlin was no trifling matter — how to transform a desolate sandy wasteland into the new German capital's city centre.
At stake was nothing less than making a statement on the fundamental principles of urban design at the end of the 20th century. Many issues needed to be addressed. How to reconcile public against commercial interests, the integration of two transport systems, road and infrastructural planning affecting the new re-united centre, limiting traffic in the inner city area and incorporating ecological considerations, deciding on the style of architecture - Manhattan high-rise buildings or lower housing, traditional, futuristic or avant-garde? Szentmiklosi A.
Antiquity 85, — Dobos, D. Berecki, L. Vass, S. Studia in honorem Stephani Bajusz. Vasiliev V. Barbu, P. Hurezan and E. Along the past years researchers have conducted both systematic archaeological diggings as well as geophysical researches. Key words: Transylvania, Bronze age, Noua culture, settlement, magnetometry Received: Gheorghe, jud. Covasna, Romania; alex. The research team is currently preparing the monographic report.
In the last decades the site at Zoltan became one of the most re- presentative Late Bronze Age sites in Transylvania. For subsequent researches see Cavruc A1—4, B1—4. By looking at the general plan we can easily observe at least two major areas of interest, which are different from each other, based on the differences of the anomalies they present fig. The western part of the researched area is structured differently. Here we could observe predominantly round-shaped magnetic anomalies that are sometimes grouped in larger structures.
Among these we mention especially the empty space found at the intersection of the A1, A2, B1 and B2 perimeters that extends towards the southern half of the A2 perimeter. First of all we can mention the dimension of the site itself. These observations could be verified in the future through punctual, small scale archaeological diggings.
References Cavruc V. Cavruc ed. Cavruc V. Popa A. Vaglinski and N. Sharankov eds. Aluta 8—9, 25— The results of the comprehensive research suggest that it is the largest and richest cemetery of the Roman period in northwest Bohemia. Key words: northwest Bohemia — geophysical survey — Roman period — cemetery — cremation graves — inhumation grave Received: For these reasons, the Roman period cemeteries currently represent some of the most endangered archaeological relics in Bohemia, which besides protection require complex and systematic research cf.
The exposed landscape position provides good visual control of the surrounding area. The area falls between the beech-oak and oak-beech vegetation stages with the occurrence of thermophilous plant species. Since the middle of the last century, the agricultural fields have mainly been used for beet and barley cultivation Kol. Finding and research circumstances The cemetery of the Roman period at Nezabylice was discovered by two amateurs in October , during an illegal survey with metal detectors.
In rescue excavations were carried out. Determining total area of the cemetery Before commencing archaeological research in , we faced the task of effectively determining the overall extent and course of the burial site. Based on the GPS coordinates of targeted detector findings projected onto the geodetic plan, the approximate range of the site was estimated in the first phase, i.
Detailed geodetic surveys, field metal detector surveys and systematic surface surveys are carried out. The total area measured in was ca 3. This assumption, however, was refuted in the supplementary magnetometric survey in , when an area of 0. Based on current measurements, it is certain that the burial site did not end at the top of the terrain, but on the contrary, it could continue too much lower slopes that gradually descend towards the valley of the Chomutovka River.
It is likely that research has so far concentrated more on the central parts of the cemetery. Nezabylice, Chomutov district. The total results of geophysical surveys carried out by R. With partial overlapping of the areas from and , the total area investigated by magnetometers is about 3.
Nowadays, we assume that the funeral complex is more or less all over this vast area, or it is formed by several small groups of graves on it. In previous archaeological research, it has been confirmed that the vast majority of minor anomalies are urn graves from the Roman period, almost 50 of which were examined by the year Fig. There are seven different groups of graves with various combinations of weapons and other furnishing.
Detail of the magnetometric measurement, on the basis of which an archaeological trenches I—XII was carried out in — Droberjar , Substantial parts of the grave equipment were located below the urn, forming an extremely concentrated cluster of metal artefacts. Quite unusual was the positioning of some spears, whose heads were facing down into the ground, either in slant or perpendicular direction.
The absence of visible grave-pits presents one of the major problems in the search for urn graves. Objectively, without the precise geophysical results, we would probably have no idea about the presence of most small features. It can be summarized that the magnetometric measurement is clearly the most efficient method of prospection of urn graves and the success of their detection depends mainly on the subsurface status of the graves conservation in situ5.
Larger pit cremation graves Very interesting type of features, found at the burial grounds in and , are three larger pit graves with cremations. Other similar magnetic anomalies i. Their largest number was recorded in , but each subsequent season brings many other artefacts e. Positive impact of this activity was that in other magnetometric measurements in the following years there was no longer any negative interference caused by their presence.
Nevertheless, every year at the beginning of the research, other especially iron objects connected mainly with modern agricultural or hunting activities are found. Example of sub-result of magnetometric measurement in square 6. Determination of the most significant magnetic anomalies of various dimensions locally forming obvious groups measured by R.
The localization of the findings is precisely geodetic focus. Their number can be estimated at several hundred in the area of the burial grounds Fig. The entire course of the trench formation was actually found only because it was in two places in the superposition with cremation graves, which were examined by magnetometer. This situation can be explained by the fact that, while small urn graves contain concentrations of highly magnetic material cremation, ceramics and metals ; these structures do not have similar materials in their fillings7.
The filling of these features was probably not sufficiently magnetically different from its surroundings and subsoil, and therefore it may not appear at least in the final magnetogram. Inhumation grave from the early Roman period Until , only urn graves had been identified at the burial site. The fundamental breakthrough occurred in the season, when the first grave with inhumation rite was explored feature 69, trench IX. Partial results of geoelectric resistance measurement measured by R. The lining was predominantly quartz, rarely orthogneiss or basalt9.
Grave 75 was equipped with an inner stone receptacle, made up of massive flat plates of heavily weathered paragneiss. The measured area was 0. The archaeological verification of the situations so far has shown not only the Roman period cremation pit grave 78, but also the inhumation grave of Corded Ware culture feature 79 in trench XII Fig. Until the findings in Nezabylice, similarly modified graves of Corded Ware culture were practically unknown in Bohemia cf. The quality of the indication of the individual anomalies in the site depends, of course, on the size, depth, type and filling of the feature, but in the case of urn graves with metal artefacts it depends mainly on their content and the state of subsurface conservation.
If there are strong magnetic materials cremation, burned ceramics, ferrous and non-ferrous metals etc. No burial site from the Roman period had been discovered in the north-western Bohemia for the last 50 years. The significance and benefits of exploring this site are therefore indisputable and absolutely crucial.
We will focus on this issue in the following chapter. The issue of degradation and devastation of cemetery One of the essential circumstances, which are fully manifested in the exploration of burial grounds not only of Roman period, is the preserved state of individual graves. Given that the burial ground is located on an agricultural land; human activities have the most powerful effect in this area.
Traces of recent ploughing activity are well visible on the site, showing parallel line structures leading roughly in the NNW—SSE direction Fig. The consequences of ploughing and erosion of archaeological features can be observed in the results of surface geophysical mainly magnetometric measurements of agricultural areas cf. Therefore the finds are documented not only by drawing and photograph, but their X-ray imaging and 3D scanning are also planned.
At present, we have already recorded some completely destroyed graves, including exceptional findings e. Regularly cultivated and freely accessible agricultural land has an attractive potential for amateur surveyors. In case of endangered and damaged sites, geophysical measurements represent 14 one of the forms of permanent digital recording, on which archaeological research can be based not only in the nearest but also in more distant future.
Among them are well-documented urn graves, very often richly equipped with weapons. Droberjar , ; , Recent research also shows that long before the Germanic cemetery was founded, the site was used for funeral activities in prehistoric times Corded Ware culture, Middle Bronze Age. The vast potential of the site is manifested not only in the diversity of material culture or typological spectrum of graves, but also in the complexity of burial ceremonies. The results of non-destructive surveys and archaeological researches show that in the case of Nezabylice, we are dealing with one of the largest and most important Germanic burial grounds in northwest Bohemia, which brings new insights into funeral rite, chronology, culture, social structure and many other aspects of the past society.
References Beljak J. Praha: Academia. Demek J. Droberjar E. Droberjar Droberjar, B. Droberjar ed. Hornik P. Application of geophysical methods for monitoring of surface and subsurface changes of origin archaeological terrains — case studies of sites in the Czech Republic. The results of magnetometer prospection as an indicator of the extent and intensity of soil erosion of archaeological sites. Jennings, Ch.
Gaffney, T. Sparrow and S. Gaffney eds. Oxford: Archaeopress Archaeology, — Lichardus J. Bonn: Rudolf Habelt Verlag. Lorber J. Pragae: Museum Nationale Pragae. Teorie archeologie. Preidel H. Die Kulturen. Deutsch-polnisches Forschungsprojekt — Zusammenfassung Messal S. Deutsch-polnisches Forschungs- projekt — Stargard, Fndst. Star- gard, Fndst. Wohn- und Speichergruben kann der slawischen Besiedlung zugeordnet werden. Jahrhundert hin. Jahrhundert zu gewinnen. Pyritzer Land. Kartierung der untersuchten Fundstellen S.
Die dortigen Angaben, insbesonde- re die Datierung der Siedlungen anhand der Keramik, sind somit nur begrenzt nachvollziehbar und kritisch zu betrachten. Dabei konnten Befunde freigelegt werden, darunter 49 ovale Gruben, die als Reste eingetiefter Wohn- bauten interpretiert wurden. Seinerzeit wurde eine Datierung der handgemach- ten Keramik und somit auch der Siedlung in das 6.
Dulinicz bezweifelt wurde Dulinicz , Nach Angaben von A. Auch M. Jahrhundert Dulinicz , Messal, Rogalski , — : Dziedzice, Kr. Der in die 2. Die Braktea- ten wurden wahrscheinlich in Sorte Muld oder in Schonen hergestellt. Dziedzice, Kr. Geomagnetische Untersuchungen, Vertei- lung der Anomalien S. Messal nach Pommern in der VWZ zu verstehen. Geomagnetische Untersuchungen, Verteilung der Anomalien S.
Moskorzyn, Kr. In Moskorzyn, Fndst. Die in Dziedzice, Kr. Dobropole Pyrzyckie, Kr. Geomagnetische Untersuchun- gen, Verteilung der Anomalien S. Geomagnetische Untersu- chungen, Verteilung der Anomalien S. Messal; B. Messal, B. Rogalski platzes Abb. Zudem konnten Reste von Kulturschichten sowie Scherben- bzw. Knochenkonzentrationen erkannt werden.
Pommersche Kul- tur datiert werden. Fundmaterial: 1 — Knochenna- del; 2 — Tonscheibe 3 — Drehscheibenkeramik A. Pommerschen Kultur zuordnen kann. Speicher- 2—3 und sonstige Gruben 1, 4—7 A. Keramik aus der Hausgrube Ob. Keramik aus der Grube Ob. Schleif- und Wetzsteine 1—7 A. Interessant ist, dass kleinere Wirtschaftsbefunde wie Feuerstellen in Dobropole Pyrzyckie fehlen. Die aufgedeckten Befunde umfassen vorrangig Gruben unterschiedlicher Funktion, einzelne Pfostengruben und Feuerstellen Foto. Rogalski , — [Derczewo]; [Dziedzice].
Zur Aufbewahrung von Saatgetreide dienten vorrangig Speicher- gruben Foto. Drei Speichergruben konnten nachgewiesen werden Abb. Ro- galski Das Fundmaterial umfasst in erster Linie Keramik. Mit einem Anteil von nahezu 98 Prozent domi- niert unverzierte Keramik, lediglich neun Randscherben weisen Ver- zierungen in Form von einfachen Kammstrich- acht Exemplare und Buckelverzierungen ein Exemplar auf. Dulinicz zusam- mengefasst wurden Dulinicz , Rogalski Westpommern. Kempke , Dulinicz diskutierten Neudatierung der vergleich- baren Keramikkomplexe von Dziedzice und Derczewo in die Zeit um und in das 8.
Jahrhundert Dulinicz , —; ; vgl. Aufgrund des Erhaltungszustandes der Nadel bleibt eine funktio- nelle Einordnung vorerst offen, wahrscheinlich ist aber eine Nutzung als Schmuck-und Gewandnadel. Mehrere Schlackebrocken weisen zudem auf eine lokale Eisenver- arbeitung in Dobropole Pyrzyckie hin. Sie dienten zur Lagerung und Trocknung des ausgedroschenen Getreides Herrmann , 76; Meier , Dulinicz , Literatur Baron J.
Biermann F. Bonn: Habelt Verlag. Mittelslawische Befunde und Siedlungsstrukturen von Berlin- Mahlsdorf. Haspel and W. Menghin eds. Berlin: Michael Imhof Verlag, — Teil 1. Janowski, K. Kowalski and S. Wadzack, Sitne — Cithne — Ziethen. Eine Siedlung des Jahrhunderts bei Zie- then, Lkr. Ostvorpommern Vorbericht. Brather S. Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter. Bursche A. Nowa Seria 9 , — Migration Period between Odra and Vistula. Bursche and K. Kowalski eds. Donat P. Haus, Hof und Dorf in Mitteleuropa vom 7. Dulinicz M. Forler D. Terberger eds.
Herrmann J. Die Slawen in Deutschland. Bonn: Habelt-Verlag. Mazurowski ed. Kaczmarek M. Kempke T. Slawische Keramik. Schietzel eds. Offa 27, — Krzyszowski A. Badania wykopaliskowe. Ziemia Lubuska. Machajewski H. Kokowski ed. Meier D. Eine slawische Burg in Ostholstein und ihr Umland.
Sprawozdania Archeologiczne 27, — Slavia Antiqua 22, 29— Rogalski B. Bis 9. Schoknecht U. Rettungsgrabungen in der kaiserzeitlichen und slawischen Siedlung von Neubrandenburg-Fritscheshof. Westphalen P. Die Eisenschlacken von Haithabu. Wetzel G. Wietrzichowski F. Bodendenkmalpflege in Mecklenburg, Jahrbuch , 37— LIDAR is now becoming the primary source of geographic data.
This technology collects very accurate geographic data. They are used by scientists representing various fields of science. Data of this type perfectly reflect the shape of the land surface, revealing sites with their own landscape form. DTM is the most useful for archaeological purposes, which reflects the land surface without vegetation and buildings. The data in the ISOK project were prepared in two standards. The research cost 20 thousand euro.
Apart from archaeologists the obtained information was used also by geographers and naturalists. Since then, several research programs have been implemented. They have their own landscape form. These objects are located in wooded areas, on headlands falling into valleys of streams or rivers site No. The size of this object is intriguing.
It covers an area of about 9 ares. The internal square covers an area of about 3 ares. Screenshot of the website www. What is more, dating of the object remains the puzzle. During the field research, no artefacts were found, which has made the dating of the object difficult. During field research carried out by Joanna Pilszyk and Piotr Szmyd, no historical artefacts were found that could date the object. The fortifications block the road from the plateau W i.
During the site inspection, no artefacts were found that might date the object. In this place there are also visible trenches from the Second World War. The examples above illustrate how useful they are. That is unique and thus extremely valuable sites. They have enriched historical landscape and broadened our knowledge about the past. A new look at historic fortifications — medieval castles and airborne laser scanning.
Anthropology, Archaeology, History and Philosophy. Albena, — Arcana GIS, Zima , 12— Davis O. Kiarszys G. Folia Praehistorica Posnaniensia 19, — Knowing Without Digging? It is situated on the southern terrace of the Dobrula small river valley. Both ornamental elements are known from Late Medieval period as well and as far as wavelet line is concerned, it was found on Late Medieval ceramic material e.
It was thought that this problem may be solved through the recognition of archaeological features in its immediate vicinity. The theoretical and methodological framework of this approach has been described in earlier papers Brejcha, Wroniecki ; Wroniecki Survey work has been taking place intermittently since Furthermore, none of our sherds is of Early Medieval dating.
This provided basic information about the site and its surroundings, such as the shape and the extent of area and the earthwork itself, the presence of potential crop marks and contemporary land-use of the site and its accessibility. In ALS data for Poland was not available and the technique itself mostly unknown. We used the multi-hillshade, hillshade, slope and Sky View Factor visualization techniques. Another 0. The survey will be continued. Tests were also carried out with the use of total-field magnetic intensity measurements with an Overhauser instrument.
Surface collection for prospection purposes was not carried out at the beginning of the research and is included in the workflow of methodical approaches. Establishing an appropriate overall chronology of the site was not the only aim of surface collection. It is conducted along artificial, regularly spaced units, being considerably smaller that the estimated structure.
This resulted in quantitative data being collected that are mutually comparable. Survey was undertaken on freshly ploughed soil without any crops, at quite high intensity with 10 field workers. Survey lines were 3m apart. Hence our applied research approach challenges established modes of practice in the recognition of archaeological sites in Poland.
Data assessment Despite annual aerial prospection surveys, no crop or soil marks were ever registered in the vicinity of the mound fig. Selected results of aerial prospection surveys. Top left: Airplane, Top right: Airplane, Bottom left: UAV, Bottom right: Airplane, North at the top Wroniecki , — and Brejcha , 66— Aerial imagery, geodetic measurements fig.
Visualization of total station survey. View from the south. Contour line step is 0,25 m. Altitude scale is in meters a. The survey unfortunately did not reveal any archaeologically significant anomalies. Earth resistance results are strongly influenced by soil moisture indexes, in the same manner as the appearance of crop mark.
The results of the magnetic gradiometry survey resulted in the most significant data spatially and qualitatively fig. Location and visualization of Twin-probe 1m spacing earth resistance survey. North at the top Knowing Without Digging? Other possible continuations of this road can be recognized in similar responses in the magnetic data.
The analytical field walking survey was carried out in These fragments were spread randomly with no specific concentrations and represent typical Late Modern waste scattered in the field. In this group two raw materials associated with the type of clay used are recognized. If the burning atmosphere was reductive, the pottery surface has dark grey color. The most common form of decoration is multiple horizontal engraved lines fig. Tracing wheel was used as well fig. From the morphological point of view, the majority of determinable vessel shapes is formed by pots with various forms of rims fig.
Results of analytical field walking data. Archaeological interpre- tation of geophysical and remote sensing data marked by blue. Color coding repre- sents weight of finds within each grid. Quantity of finds represented by number in center of each grid. The small-scale metal detector survey registered 13 Late- Medieval finds located mostly directly north and south of the mound. Late Medieval and Early Modern pottery. Purple Mapping of remote sensing and geophysical anomalies. A Fill of possible former moat that surrounded the mound B Traces of possible road network C Remains of highly magnetized timber constructions D Remains of road with traces of settlement pits?
The implemented methodology allowed for the collection of archaeologically significant information. Analytical field walking surveys enhance the spatial understanding of past processes taking place in the landscape in different time periods. Marciniak-Kajzer in her publication on private residences doubted in rectangular-shaped medieval mottes , 68—69 assuming that this form appeared in the Early Modern period. During excavations in — two phases of medieval residence were uncovered. Hillshaded DEMs of rectangular mottes from Poland.
This overview indicates that rectangular forms of motte were not exceptional, especially in the Late Middle Ages 14th and 15th centuries although most of them are known from Silesia and only some from Late Medieval territory of the Kingdom of Poland.
Large, regular, and heavily magnetized anomalies are characteristic of burnt daub walls, typical in Late Medieval Polish architecture. Sikora, Kittel The applied techniques and methodology are capable of providing significant scientific data. At the foundation of this approach lies the crucial appreciation of the value of integration of methods. Finally, what may seem obvious but is often forgotten when evaluating various methodologies — despite various flaws it is non-destructive, thus the research on certain sites can be repeated many times without damaging unique and irreplaceable archaeological resources.
References Biermann F. Brejcha R. Gojda ed. Ciesielski eds. Among the omitted topics. Cowley D. Remote sensing for archaeology and heritage management — site discovery, interpretation and registration. Cowley ed. Gojda M. Kajzer L.