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  1. Chapter 17: In What Way (or Not) is Bourdieu Useful to the Sociology of Literature?
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  3. romain gary the man who sold his shadow critical authors and issues Manual

To believe none so is something worse. But I know you fear that you may fail in your long-term objective to destroy our free society and I can show you why you will fail. In the brief time that P2P nets have flourished, the ad-hoc masses of the Internet have managed to put just about everything online. We've arranged a civilization in which most crucial elements profoundly depend on science and technology.

We have also arranged things so that almost no one understands science and technology. This is a prescription for disaster. We might get away with it for awhile, but sooner or later this combustible mixture of ignorance and power is going to blow up in our faces. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door! He can be completely realistic in every sense but one, that one sense being that in life as we know it such a man would not be a private detective.

The artist is not a person endowed with free will who seeks his own ends, but one who allows art to realize its purpose through him. You must remember that the parts you are reassembling were disassembled by you. Therefore, if you can't get them together again, there must be a reason.

By all means, do not use a hammer. I'd take him out for a meal and apologise for everything I've put him through. Rowling August From without, no wonderful effect is wrought within ourselves, unless some interior, responding wonder meets it. That the starry vault shall surcharge the heart with all rapturous marvelings, is only because we ourselves are greater miracles, and superber trophies than all the stars in universal space.

It's not about who's right or wrong. No denomination's nailed it yet, and they never will because they're all too self-righteous to realize that it doesn't matter what you have faith in, just that you have faith. Your hearts are in the right place, but your brains need to wake up. I have issues with anyone who treats faith as a burden instead of a blessing. You people don't celebrate your faith; you mourn it.

It is only of life on Earth, however, that one can speak with any certainty. It seems to me that all life on Earth, the sum total of life upon the Earth, has purpose. Simak My name is Ozymandias, king of kings: Look on my works, ye mighty, and despair! Nothing beside remains: round the decay Of that colossal wreck, boundless and bare, The lone and level sands stretch far away. Learn as if you were to live forever. Eisenhower Intelligence is like four-wheel drive. It only allows you to get stuck in more remote places. Ingersoll Once we realize that imperfect understanding is the human condition there is no shame in being wrong, only in failing to correct our mistakes.

Chesterton To listen to some devout people, one would imagine that God never laughs. Those who dream by night in the dusty recesses of their minds wake in the day to find that it was vanity: but the dreamers of the day are dangerous men, for they may act their dream with open eyes, to make it possible.

Lawrence Be sure that you are right, and then go ahead. If you continue to hate, you are entering into the same philosophy that began the war. You have to look forward at people and new times. I do not mean a country where six men may make five men do exactly as they like. Time is a river which carries me along, but I am the river; it is a tiger that devours me, but I am the tiger; it is a fire that consumes me, but I am the fire.

I tell you the division is a thread, a sheet of glass. A touch here, a push there, and you bring back the reign of Saturn. When in a state of security he does not forget the possibility of ruin. When all is orderly, he does not forget that disorder may come. Thus his person is not endangered, and his States and all their clans are preserved. I have a dream today I find that the great thing in this world is not so much where we stand as in what direction we are moving: To reach the port of heaven, we must sail sometimes with the wind and sometimes against it — but we must sail, and not drift, nor lie at anchor.

No one can conceive the variety of feelings which bore me onwards, like a hurricane, in the first enthusiasm of success. Life and death appeared to me ideal bounds, which I should first break through, and pour a torrent of light into our dark world. Place in matter and in flesh the least of the values, for these are things that hold death and must pass away. Discover in all things that which shines and is beyond corruption. Encourage virtue in whatever heart it may have been driven into secrecy and sorrow by the shame and terror of the world.

What role does silence have in all this noise? Its role is no more to exclusively uphold the claims of the individual than it is to exclusively uphold the claims of the government: It must hold the constitutional balance true between these claims. They know it's going to rise tomorrow. When people are fanatically dedicated to political or religious faiths or any other kinds of dogmas or goals, it's always because these dogmas or goals are in doubt. Pirsig I am patient with stupidity but not with those who are proud of it.

McKay Love is life. All, everything that I understand, I understand only because I love. More fruitful perspectives often require that we step off the line to a site outside the dichotomy. But September 11 also posed a momentous and deliberate challenge not just to America but to the world at large. The target of the terrorists was not only New York and Washington but the very values of freedom, tolerance and decency which underpin our way of life.

They are nothing of the sort. What the world turns to, when it has been cured of one error, is usually simply another error, and maybe one worse than the first one. Mencken Miss Manners does not mind explaining the finer points of gracious living, but she feels that anyone without the sense to pick up a potato chip and stuff it in their face should probably not be running around loose on the streets.

Try and vary your methods as you will, your tastes, your habits, your attitude of mind, and your soul is revealed by your actions. But the job is to seek mystery, evoke mystery, plant a garden in which strange plants grow and mysteries bloom. The need for mystery is greater than the need for an answer. When you learn to tap this source, you will have truly defeated age. And no good thing ever dies. My very soul is wedded to it, and if I were a bird I would fly about the earth seeking the successive autumns.

You can't start a fire — you can't start a fire without a spark. This gun's for hire — even if we're just dancing in the dark. Scott Fitzgerald Between grief and nothing I will take grief. Could you see the guy who was driving? Could you climb higher and higher? Could you climb right over the top? If the result is contrary to the hypothesis, then you've made a discovery. But no matter how necessary, it is always an evil, never a good.

We will not learn how to live together in peace by killing each other's children. It is a dimension as vast as space and as timeless as infinity. It is the middle ground between light and shadow, between science and superstition, and it lies between the pit of man's fears and the summit of his knowledge. This is the dimension of imagination. It is an area which we call the Twilight Zone3 fil. I have yet to hear anyone say something that seemed likely to mitigate the idiocy of this age. Then we shall all, philosophers, scientists, and just ordinary people, be able to take part in the discussion of the question of why it is that we and the universe exist.

If we find the answer to that, it would be the ultimate triumph of human reason — for then we would know the mind of God. Death closes all; but something ere the end, Some work of noble note, may yet be done, Not unbecoming men that strove with gods. But the opposite of a profound truth may well be another profound truth.

True religion must teach that life is filled with joys pleasing to the eye of God, that knowledge without action is empty. All men must see that the teaching of religion by rules and rote is largely a hoax. The proper teaching is recognized with ease. You can know it without fail because it awakens within you that sensation which tells you this is something you've always known.


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Our primary allegiance is to the human race and not to one particular color or border. And the story of a love is not important — what is important is that one is capable of love. It is perhaps the only glimpse we are permitted of eternity.

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You wait for the dust to settle, and then you choose. You can live in the wreckage and pretend it's still the mansion you remember. Or you can crawl from the rubble and slowly rebuild. Whom do they hate most? Him who breaketh up their tables of values, the breaker, the law-breaker — he, however, is the creator. Companions, the creator seeketh, not corpses — and not herds or believers either. Fellow-creators the creator seeketh — those who grave new values on new tables.

Always hold in your heart the pride of your special heritage. They can be a great people, Kal-El — they wish to be. They only lack the light to show the way. I mean, even all the best rebels to me had some sense of hope in them. And drugs are not central to my life. There are deep wells of strength that are never used. Byrd I know that it will hurt, I know that it will break your heart, the way things are, and the way they've been. Don't spread the discontent, don't spread the lies, don't make the same mistakes with your own life.

The credit belongs to the man who is actually in the arena; whose face is marred by the dust and sweat and blood; who strives valiantly; who errs and comes short again and again; who knows the great enthusiasms, the great devotions and spends himself in a worthy cause; who at the best, knows in the end the triumph of high achievement, and who, at worst, if he fails, at least fails while daring greatly; so that his place shall never be with those cold and timid souls who know neither victory or defeat.

The only maxim of a free government ought to be to trust no man living with power to endanger the public liberty. I have shown it for years; think you I shall lose it at the moment when my sufferings are to end? Somewhere, over the rainbow, skies are blue, And the dreams that you dare to dream Really do come true. No sir, you can look through everything I ever did write or say, and you never did hear me tell a joke about any mother-in-law — or any creed, color or religion, either. Kennedy If you wish to make an apple pie from scratch, you must first create the universe.

What have you got? A hundred years or much, much less until the end of your world. It is the spirit of the men who follow and of the man who leads that gains that victory. Patton Every age hath its own problem, and every soul its particular aspiration. The remedy the world needeth in its present-day afflictions can never be the same as that which a subsequent age may require. Be anxiously concerned with the needs of the age ye live in, and centre your deliberations on its exigencies and requirements.

That may be beyond us, but so long as there are tears and suffering, so long our work will not be over. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced.

Who kills a man kills a reasonable creature, God's image; but he who destroys a good book, kills reason itself, kills the image of God, as it were in the eye. Schulz Put every great teacher together in a room, and they'd agree about everything; put their disciples in there and they'd argue about everything.

It would be better to live under robber barons than under omnipotent moral busybodies. The robber baron's cruelty may sometimes sleep, his cupidity may at some point be satiated; but those who torment us for our own good will torment us without end for they do so with the approval of their own conscience. Lewis Hello. You killed my father. Prepare to die. I think that the worst thing you could say is that he is, basically, an under-achiever.

I do believe that if there is something like a political life-to-be — to remain for us, in this world of technology — then it begins with friendship. To beautify it is to take away its character of complexity — it is to destroy it. Will is of little importance, complaining is nothing, fame is nothing. Openness, patience, receptivity, solitude is everything.

Always remember that this whole thing was started with a dream and a mouse. It is a burst of Heaven-shaking thunder; It is a linnet's fluting after rain. This is not merely interference with freedom of the press but the sealing up of a nation's heart, the excision of its memory. The best and the worst In other words, I had a life. It must be a complete dedication to the people and to the nation with full recognition that every human being is entitled to courtesy and consideration, that constructive criticism is not only to be expected but sought, that smears are not only to be expected but fought, that honor is to be earned but not bought.

Religious creationists and scientific materialists are equally dogmatic and insensitive. By their arrogance they bring both science and religion into disrepute. If you're afraid you don't commit yourself to life completely; fear makes you always, always hold something back. Dick I will live in the Past, the Present, and the Future. The Spirits of all Three shall strive within me. I will not shut out the lessons that they teach. Who are we? What are we? We find that we inhabit an insignificant planet of a hum-drum star lost in a galaxy tucked away in some forgotten corner of a universe in which there are far more galaxies than people.

We make our world significant by the courage of our questions, and by the depth of our answers. Patton My own experience and development deepen every day my conviction that our moral progress may be measured by the degree in which we sympathize with individual suffering and individual joy. I reached for the last one they had, but so did another man.

As I rained blows upon him, I realized there had to be another way. Nicholas soon would be there. Come to think of it, why do we have to wait for Christmas to do that? We can only make them right by discussion. History is one war after another with a bunch of murders and natural disasters in between. If you can fill the unforgiving minute With sixty seconds' worth of distance run, Yours is the Earth and everything that's in it, And — which is more — you'll be a Man, my son! That was the whole of her sermon.

Only connect the prose and the passion, and both will be exalted, and human love will be seen at its height. Live in fragments no longer. Only connect, and the beast and the monk, robbed of the isolation that is life to either, will die. Forster How often people speak of art and science as though they were two entirely different things, with no interconnection That is all wrong. The true artist is quite rational as well as imaginative and knows what he is doing; if he does not, his art suffers. The true scientist is quite imaginative as well as rational, and sometimes leaps to solutions where reason can follow only slowly; if he does not, his science suffers.

For what is the time of a man, except it be interwoven with that memory of ancient things of a superior age? The first is freedom of speech and expression — everywhere in the world. The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his own way — everywhere in the world. The third is freedom from want The fourth is freedom from fear That is no vision of a distant millennium.

It is a definite basis for a kind of world attainable in our own time and generation. There is only one world, for all of us to live and delight in. Then something happened which unleashed the power of our imagination. We learned to talk. It will begin anew with love; it will start out naked and tiny; it will take root in the wilderness, and to it all that we did and built will mean nothing — our towns and factories, our art, our ideas will all mean nothing, and yet life will not perish!

Only we have perished. Our houses and machines will be in ruins, our systems will collapse, and the names of our great will fall away like dry leaves. Only you, love, will blossom on this rubbish heap and commit the seed of life to the winds. Love that, not man Apart from that, or else you will share man's pitiful confusions, or drown in despair when his days darken. They are written, as with a sunbeam, in the whole volume of human nature, by the hand of the divinity itself; and can never be erased or obscured by mortal power.

My fiery protest is simply the cry of my very soul. That's what we're doing. Power at its best is love implementing the demands of justice, and justice at its best is power correcting everything that stands against love I know that love is ultimately the only answer to mankind's problems. And I'm going to talk about it everywhere I go. Human felicity is produc'd not so much by great pieces of good fortune that seldom happen, as by little advantages that occur every day.

I don't understand the concept of two sides. And I think that probably there's good on both sides, bad on both sides, and there's a middle ground. But it never seems to come to the middle ground.

Chapter 17: In What Way (or Not) is Bourdieu Useful to the Sociology of Literature?

And it's very frustrating watching it, and seemingly we're not moving forward. Therefore if we would acquire useful knowledge, we must first divest ourselves of those impediments and sincerely endeavor to search out the truth: and draw our conclusions from reason and just argument, which will never conform to our inclination, interest or fancy but we must conform to that if we would judge rightly. Howard To minimize suffering and to maximize security were natural and proper ends of society and Caesar. But then they became the only ends, somehow, and the only basis of law — a perversion. Inevitably, then, in seeking only them, we found only their opposites: maximum suffering and minimum security.

Miller, Jr. Over the obscure man is poured the merciful suffusion of darkness. None knows where he goes or comes. He may seek the truth and speak it; he alone is free; he alone is truthful, he alone is at peace. I have long advocated its complete abolition, as its very destructiveness on both friend and foe has rendered it useless as a means of settling international disputes But once war is forced upon us, there is no other alternative than to apply every available means to bring it to a swift end.

But an author is one who can judge his own stuff's worth, without pity, and destroy most of it. They don't know evil or jealousy or discontent. To sit with a dog on a hillside on a glorious afternoon is to be back in Eden, where doing nothing was not boring — it was peace. Roosevelt Everyone does magic all the time in different ways. My soul has grown deep like the rivers. Every one of these must be right for that particular moment of history, or nothing happens.

Michener If one took no chances, one would not fly at all. Safety lies in the judgment of the chances one takes. Any coward can sit in his home and criticize a pilot for flying into a mountain in fog. But I would rather, by far, die on a mountainside than in bed. Who leads us is less important than what leads us — what convictions, what courage, what faith — win or lose.

We respect the man of laborious desire, but let us not suppose that his restlessness is peace, or his ambition meekness. It is because of the special connection of meekness with contentment that it is promised that the meek shall 'inherit the earth. Only contentment can possess.

You don't need to photograph, paint or even remember it. It is enough. No record of it needs to be kept and you don't need someone to share it with or tell it to. When that happens — that letting go — you let go because you can. As much as I may dislike or want to reject that responsibility, this is something that comes with public success.

It's important to give others a sense of hope that it is possible and you can come from really different places in the world and find your own place in the world that's unique for yourself. Not that we needed all that for the trip, but once you get locked into a serious drug-collection, the tendency is to push it as far as you can. The only thing that really worried me was the ether. There is nothing in the world more helpless and irresponsible and depraved than a man in the depths of an ether binge. And I knew we'd get into that rotten stuff pretty soon. Thompson When others asked the truth of me, I was convinced it was not the truth they wanted, but an illusion they could bear to live with.

He is not what he is simply once and for all, but is a process One cannot doubt that the martyrdom will continue to be gladly embraced. To some of us, the wresting of beauty out of language is the only thing in the world that matters. That's because ninety percent of everything is crud. Most of them will be wrong, and what you have to learn is which ones to throw away. And mourn the dead. But the number of digits, Gave him the fidgets; He dropped Math and took up Divinity. Freedom is always the freedom of dissenters.

We have a passion — make a law, Too false to guide us or control! And for the law itself we fight In bitterness of soul. And, puzzled, blinded thus, we lose Distinctions that are plain and few: These find I graven on my heart: That tells me what to do. Some choices will choose you. How you face these choices, these turns in the road, with what kind of attitude, more than the choices themselves, is what will define the context of your life.

A good writer turns fact into truth; a bad writer will, more often than not, accomplish the opposite. It's the most dangerous thing in the world. For knowledge is limited, whereas imagination embraces the entire world, stimulating progress, giving birth to evolution. The detective must be a complete man and a common man and yet an unusual man. He must be, to use a rather weathered phrase, a man of honor.

He talks as the man of his age talks, that is, with rude wit, a lively sense of the grotesque, a disgust for sham, and a contempt for pettiness. There is an idea, Mr. Creedy, and ideas are bulletproof. Calhoun Who save the madman dares to cry: "'Tis I am right, you all are wrong"? Forbid it, Almighty God! I know not what course others may take; but as for me, give me liberty or give me death! If I have succeeded in some small way, if only in one small corner of the world, amongst the men and women I love, then I shall count myself blessed, and blessed, and blessed, and the work goes on.

Desires do not conflict with Him, thoughts do not mingle with Him: His essence is without qualification, His action without effort. But the mode of approach to the object to be known is dependent upon the nature of the knower. They're truthful in a different way. After this, men can believe anything, expect anything. So, it is how we use our lives that determines what kind of men we are. It is my deepest belief that only by giving our lives do we find life.

This is the eternal rule. Behind the need to communicate is the need to share. Behind the need to share is the need to be understood. The writer wants to be understood much more than he wants to be respected or praised or even loved. And that perhaps, is what makes him different from others. Where the story has been betrayed, silence is but emptiness. But we, the faithful, when we have spoken our last word, will hear the voice of silence.

I do not pretend to know where many ignorant men are sure — that is all that agnosticism means. It is always sunrise somewhere; the dew is never all dried at once; a shower is forever falling; vapor ever rising. Eternal sunrise, eternal sunset, eternal dawn and gloaming, on seas and continents and islands, each in its turn, as the round earth rolls. He can't know whether knowledge will save him or kill him.

He will be killed, all right, but he can't know whether he is killed because of the knowledge which he has got or because of the knowledge which he hasn't got and which if he had it would save him. It is also true that speed can multiply the distribution of information that we know to be untrue. Murrow Search men's governing principles, and consider the wise, what they shun and what they cleave to. This is chiefly because I am never satisfied until I have said as much as possible in a few words, and writing briefly takes far more time than writing at length.

Where the market works, I'm for that. Where the government is necessary, I'm for that. I'm deeply suspicious of somebody who says, 'I'm in favor of privatization,' or, 'I'm deeply in favor of public ownership. I have only begun to learn content and peace of mind since I have resolved at all risks to do this. Huxley Once you label me you negate me. They have to be endlessly explained by the commentaries of individual lives, and they gain an added mystery in each new revelation. This is sometimes carried to the point where it is demanded that our theories must be formulated in such terms that they refer only to measurable magnitudes.

The moment to bridge the chasms that divide us has come. The time to build is upon us. That's what makes it work. That's reggae music. You can't look away because it's real. You listen to what I sing because I mean what I sing, there's no secret, no big deal. Just honesty, that's all. They are your rallying point to build courage when courage seems to fail, to regain faith when there seems to be little cause for faith, to create hope when hope becomes forlorn.

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No word matters. But man forgets reality and remembers words. They cannot be destroyed altogether because they represent the substance of faith and the only reality. They are what we find again when the ruins are cleared away. Know why? Because nobody dares contradict you. It's everything. It's the walk you take in the morning, it's the night before, the meeting with people, landscapes, the chats, all of that evolves in some way into melody, but I'm not sure how it's going to happen. I'm dealing with the unknown all the time and that is exciting. By attempting to rigidly classify ethereal concepts like faith, we end up debating semantics to the point where we entirely miss the obvious — that is, that we are all trying to decipher life's big mysteries, and we're each following our own paths of enlightenment.

There's nothing fluffy about optimism. So if you're trying to do the right thing, the right thing might be to eliminate the cost of making a mistake rather than try to guess what's right. They'll make you look like chopped liver. It amounts to nothing and will not help us rout the destructive forces threatening us today. What may be our salvation is the discovery of the identity hidden deep in any one of us, and which may be found in even the most desperate individual, if he cares to search the spiritual womb which contains the embryo of what can be one's personal contribution to truth and life.

Reason is itself a matter of faith. It is an act of faith to assert that our thoughts have any relation to reality at all. Chesterton I bow before the authority of special men because it is imposed on me by my own reason. I am conscious of my own inability to grasp, in all its detail, and positive development, any very large portion of human knowledge. The greatest intelligence would not be equal to a comprehension of the whole I receive and I give — such is human life.

Each directs and is directed in his turn. Therefore there is no fixed and constant authority, but a continual exchange of mutual, temporary, and, above all, voluntary authority and subordination. This type of numerical superiority is quite distinct from numerical superiority in general: it is the most powerful medium in the art of war. Circumspection and devotion are a contradiction in terms. People have to get it like that, and if they don't, if it takes three seconds to make them understand, you're off their radar screen.

Three seconds to understand, or you lose. This is our problem. All is well, provided the light returns and the eclipse does not become endless night. Dawn and resurrection are synonymous. The reappearance of the light is the same as the survival of the soul. But I sing of you. For posterity I sing of your profile and grace. Of the signal maturity of your understanding.

Of your appetite for death and the taste of its mouth.

Of the sadness of your once valiant gaiety. Let him that hath understanding count the number of the beast: for it is the number of a man; and his number is Six hundred threescore and six. It is always varying the productions it offers to us. The artist himself is one of nature's means. In that lies hope. But in the end, the details of a matter are important. The right and wrong of one's way of doing things are found in trivial matters. To all Ways there are side-tracks. If you study a Way daily, and your spirit diverges, you may think you are obeying a good way, but objectively it is not the true Way.

In France, people usually think that drawing is just a step toward writing. The attitude is very different in China or Japan, for example. With his friend Lewis Trondheim, Sfar created the Dungeon series, a brilliant parody of sword-and-sorcery epics involving clumsy heroes and bloodthirsty monsters. Its success was huge among hardcore BD fans, allowing Sfar to take on dozens of new projects, including a series for kids, Little Vampire , and the autobiographical Carnets. Do they respect us, though, when religions tell us how to live, how we should treat our women? Of Syrian origin, born in Paris, this young cartoonist was spotted early on by Joann Sfar, who published his first two books a guide for hitting on women and a hilarious story about his circumcision.

Keeping his intense focus on the coming-of-age period, he recently branched out into film. A former punk singer, Larcenet began publishing his BD work in Fluide Glacial , a famous humor comic, and later befriended Lewis Trondheim. Similarly, every historian of the period places this fearsome military leader at center stage, regardless of whether they describe him as a heroic freedom fighter or as a fundamentalist religious terrorist. This absence requires explanation, especially when contrasted with the heroic description of Judah in the Books of Maccabees, and his even greater aggrandizement in the four hundred paragraphs about his achievements in the writings of Josephus.

Nineteenth-century scholarship portrayed the Pharisees and rabbis as caring only about religious freedom rather than political sovereignty. The rabbis accordingly downplayed military activism, which might encourage a dangerous replay of anti-Roman revolts, in favor of religious and spiritual leadership. These scholars pointed to the lack of a Mishnaic tractate for Hanukkah, statements opposing non-Davidic kings, and the de-emphasis on the military victory in favor of the miracle of the cruse of oil as the basis for the holiday.

After the s, however, historians questioned the earlier interpretation and instead emphasized pro-Hasmonean statements in rabbinic literature and assumed literary rather than political explanations for the centrality of the cruse of oil story. In part motivated by Zionist ideology, this scholarship paved the way for a positive view of the Hasmoneans as models for modern Israeli statehood. These scholars correctly noted that rabbinic literature is not historiography, and therefore omission of even significant events need not arouse attention. Nevertheless, Judah the Maccabee seems too central to miss even taking into account the spotty nature of the Talmud.

Instead of idolizing a fighter, the leader of a rebellion, they preferred to ignore him as an individual and to praise an anonymous victory. But that is only because they are able to portray him as a rabbinized sage who received prophecy, drawing on an ancient tradition also cited by Josephus. For the next two generations, Talmudic stories vilify Alexander Yannai and his sons and defend the reputation of the Pharisaic leaders. All of this contrasts with Josephus, who extols the Hasmonean leaders beyond even the praise lavished on them in 1 Maccabees, his primary source.

He also introduces some criticisms of the Pharisees in order to mitigate the evil of the last generations of Hasmoneans. Josephus may have ended his days in the Pharisaic camp, but he also remembered his Hasmonean ancestry and, in a conflict, preferred the latter over the former. With her typical erudition and insight, Noam reviews six significant narratives about the Hasmonean dynasty as recorded in Josephus and rabbinic literature.

This book focuses less on what really happened and more on what Josephus and the rabbis thought of the Hasmoneans.

romain gary the man who sold his shadow critical authors and issues Manual

She does this by peeling away each layer of these traditions so that they can be compared and contrasted side by side. Fascinatingly, this means that some details within rabbinic stories may retain greater historical accuracy than discrepancies in Josephus, despite the former composing their works centuries after the latter. Having become one of the most popular holidays in the Jewish calendar, Jews today continue to celebrate Hanukkah and retell the stories of Judah the Maccabee and his family. Different people will choose to emphasize various aspects of these stories to reflect their own views on politics, power, sovereignty, and assimilation.

But this is nothing new. As Noam demonstrates, each narrative retelling teaches us as much about their original Maccabean subjects as about the storytellers themselves. Rabbi Dr. There was a National Geographic from , and black and white photos of Israel dating from World War II—mystifying because my parents had never been to Israel. In the early eighties, as a student at the Hebrew University, there was a shop in the Old City of Jerusalem that I loved to browse in.

It sold plastic encased watercolor drawings, sepia prints, and black and white photos of Jerusalem and the Holy Land that dated from the nineteenth to the twentieth century. While the view from the Mount of Olives was spectacular, so was the view from its adjacent mountain, Mount Scopus, where Hebrew University was located. It was a far cry from the landscape of my childhood: cornfields stretching out to the horizon, Chew Mail Pouch Tobacco written on the side of barns, blue skies, peace, and tranquility. In many respects, Midwesterners mirrored this landscape: open and not given to unexpected bursts of passion.

In contrast, Israel, with its layers and layers of civilizations—the Jebusites, Israelites,Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Persians, Umayyads, Crusaders, Ottomans, British and a bunch of others in between—was complicated. That was evident, too, from the view on Mount Scopus. At the edge of the university was an amphitheater that overlooked the much-disputed West Bank and the barren Judean Hills, the subject of intense discussions among both my Palestinian and Jewish friends.

Directly south, the seven gilded-onion domes of the Russian Orthodox Church held sway on the Mount of Olives, and down its slope was the 3,year-old Jewish cemetery, containing graves from the time of the First Temple. People of three faiths and any number of ethnicities and nationalities lay claim to this little sliver of land in the Middle East. Israel is complicated, and Israelis are as complicated as the land they live on. Israel changed a lot of my views, some in profound ways. I began to see religion from another perspective, and I ultimately converted to Judaism.

Which in turn affected my worldview. It can also be an emotional or spiritual space. Sometimes all three. The photos of the Dome of the Rock and the Wailing Wall could have been taken today. But the Australian Soldiers Club is gone. The Mount of Olives is all built up. Views change. None of them are major characters; none even speak. They are marginalized people playing limited roles in the world of the March sisters. Now would be a good time to bring these minor characters to center stage. They are obvious. Americans were brash and uninhibited, Germans serious and scholarly, and Spaniards were exotically attractive.

Jews were meek. They were stateless, and only recently emancipated by law in France, freed from ghettos and onerous legal restrictions. Still, one would have thought that in an edition comparable in size to a volume of the Talmud, Matteson might have remarked on this condescending adjective, and the historical conditions that made it normal to label Jews as such. Though Jo uses the term innocently, the name. The mention of the next Jewish character is really curious.

Not presented previously in the narrative, he shows up in a casual statement as if needing no introduction. Again, there is no comment in the annotated edition to remark on this. Perhaps to both Alcott and her readers, the identification of Jews with money was obvious, and lent a realistic touch to her detailed portrait of a foreign city.

But the stereotypes wrapped up in her portrait of the secretary are difficult to brush off. His tight boots also emphasize his poor understanding of social cues in polite society; for all his wealth, he cannot choose proper footwear.