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- Hispania. Volume 74, Number 2, May 1991
- Nezahualcóyotl, entre historia, leyenda y divinización
- A/CONF/13/Add Informe de la CIPD, Adicion (94/10/18)
We emphasise the idea that the principle of legal exceptionality is not as merely used in response to the current crisis in capitalism, but is an enduring and core technique of power used by states to reproduce economic and colonial power relations. Thus, this paper offers three core points of departure from dominant understandings of the state of exception.
First, we urge a rupture of the crude opposition between positive law and the state of exception.
Second, we argue for a rejection of limited Western concept of liberal, political rights. Finally, we argue for an attention to the materiality of power relations, rather than a narrow focus on the power projected by formal institutions of state power. Puerto Rican colonial-economic, political and legal development has been based on the state of exception. However, in PR, a double exceptionality operates: a colonial state of exception, which refers to the US's uses of this paradigm as a However, in PR, a double exceptionality operates: a colonial state of exception, which refers to the US's uses of this paradigm as a colonial domination technique; and an internal state of exception, which refers to the uses of this paradigm by the Puerto Rican government as a dispositive to tackle economic and financial crises.
This double exceptionality portrays a more complex understanding of the state of exception, one that better portrays the intertwined relations between colonialism, economy and law. This paper proposes: 1 a depiction of the state of exception and its connection to economic development; 2 a description of the US colonial state of exception in PR; 3 and an analysis of the Puerto Rican and US government responses to the current Puerto Rican economic and financial crisis.
Additionally, I will like to thank David Whyte for his support and contributions to this paper. Finally, I am thankful for the comments and many revisions made by the reviewers of this paper.follow
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ISSN State Crime Journal, 5 2 , ISSN more. This article puts forth the concept of colonial state terror as a category for the analysis of political violence in the Puerto Rican colonial conflict by US and Puerto Rican governments and pro-state organizations. To this end, the To this end, the article is divided into four parts.
In doing so, this article seeks to contribute to the development of a more nuanced research agenda focused on the relationship between colonialism, political violence, law and processes of depoliticization. Abstract: This article proposes a critical and innovative perspective on state crimes as an area of study that has been predominantly focused on countries of the global South and on which little has been theorized regarding its relationship with colonialism. Firstly, I intend to show that state crimes are a complex phenomenon that take place in most liberal democracies , both in the global north and south, and secondly, that the so-called democratic states of the global north have systematically incurred in criminal behavior under colonial contexts.
Furthermore, it is shown that this political phenomenon involves a variety of agents and that in no way could it be considered an isolated phenomenon. Hence, I argue that state crimes and their relationship with colonialism must be studied from a multidi-mensional and critical perspective, which I have termed colonial state crimes. Terrorismo de estado colonial en Puerto Rico. View on relacionesinternacionales. The paradigm of the state of exception, currently central to studies in sovereignty and political action of liberal-democratic states, has been present in the philosophical and political literature since the nineteenth century.
However, it is Carl Schmitt, German philosopher and jurist, who systematically presented a coherent theory on this paradigm since the s through the s. This article discloses a critical reading of the definitions and interpretations of the state of exception proposed by Schmidt and its influences on other contemporary authors, such as Giorgio Agamben. It also clarifies and debates the key concepts of Schmitt's political philosophy, such as sovereignty, decision, and exceptionality, while showing Schmitt's critique of liberalism.
This overview will allow us to comprehend and criticize Schmitt's arguments and definitions of power, law, violence, and politics.
Struggles for environmental justice have become a fundamental part of Puerto Rican sociopolitical and anticolonial mobilizations since the mid-twentieth century. In this context, and paying particular attention to the criminalization The discussion of these points shows the close connection between Puerto Rican environmental and anti-colonial movements, as well as the mechanisms of repression and criminalization deployed against them.
Publication Date: Dec 1, Publication Date: Sep Publication Date: Counter-insurgency goes to university: the militarisation of policing in the Puerto Rico student strikes more. Atiles-Osoria and David Whyte. Book Chapters. Indocilidad reflexiva. In Bittle, S. Revisiting Crimes of the Powerful: Marxism, crime and deviance. London and New York: Routledge, By doing this, the chapter will show how, even though Pearce does not develop a By doing this, the chapter will show how, even though Pearce does not develop a colonial perspective in his analysis of the crimes of the powerful, his theory and his methodological emphasis in the study of what has been normalized and naturalized constitute a foundational contribution to the development of the colonial perspective in the analysis of state crimes.
The intention is to show how Pearce has contributed to the development of the colonial state crimes concept, allowing for a better understanding of colonial violence. Madrid: Ediciones London: Routledge, The U. It included the territory of present Zimbabwe and much of the territory central and southern of Mozambique. Finished it, he orders to bring him a pot of cooked maize in grain, and pouring it around the room tells them to eat, because maize grows in the earth, and he is the lord of it.
There is also flattering because they all come down to get who picks more, knowing that this one pleases him more, and when they have caught it they eat it more willingly then if it was fine jam Faria e Sousa, , II: — In the Chicova Fort, about a hundred leagues from Sena in the region of Mozambique , died the soldiers victims of an epidemic that was related to the excessive heat.
Faria e Sousa also placed maize on the beautiful and quasi deserted main island of the Socotra archipelago, located near the Horn of Africa and belonging to Yemen today. Some of these recent testimonies relating to East Africa immerse us in the doubt of whether we are actually referring to maize or to other cereal most common and traditional in the area; but, as we will discuss below, this confusion is also perceived in other distinguished countries of the African continent, as it happens in particular with the mythical kingdom of Ethiopia.
Maize, indeed, will be listed as a cereal commonly consumed in places where, at first, it does not seem to be sufficiently widespread, at least in the proportions that are proposed for the years — and in direct competition with other grains of deep tradition in the area. This seems to be the case of Ethiopia, which we will try to examine next.
Hispania. Volume 74, Number 2, May 1991
However, we cannot absolutely reject the existence in such dates of an emerging growing of maize in Ethiopian territory, where, as we will soon see, the plant soon adapts and achieves an important development that survives today. After the failure of a first embassy that left for Ethiopia in the time of John II of Portugal, since the only survivor Pedro de Covilhan was retained in the country and not allowed to return to Europe, in King Manuel I sent a second delegation. The return of the retinue began in April and arrived in Lisbon in mid Herrero-Massari, ; Bouba-Kidakou, The wonder of the travel and of the fabulous discovery, in short, seems to survive over the ruins of the ancient legendary tale.
If it were not enough, the remote Judeo-Christian history of Ethiopia, that is to say, its legendary past in relation to the Queen of Sheba and Solomon and, already in the early days of our era, the process of its evangelization through the royal officer baptized by the apostle Philip, naturally add new legendary elements to this unique country which, except the brief occupation of Italy — around World War II, did not directly suffered the vicissitudes of European colonialism.
Besides adding an introduction that, he said, he had missed in the work of Lusitanian, he also suppressed the references to the chapters, he introduced some Canary words such as sereta handbag made of plaited palm , gofio roasted flour or pampillo Argyranthemum , and, finally, he took some interpretative liberties more or less in line with the typical translation methods of the time. In the present context we can think that if Padilla associated so strongly the maize to Portugal or, rather, to a Portuguese author, is because at the time he lived or should live in the country, he noticed the remarkable development of the plant which, under the name of millo milho , as it was called precisely in his agnatic land, already constituted a food of great interest for consumption, both for livestock as it was the case with other cereals and traditional grains in Europe and, of course, for the people, particularly in those areas where the crop successfully replaced other grains less suitable to the arable land.
For this we will present, firstly, the Portuguese texts in italics and then the Castilian version, respecting the spelling of the time, and the pages with the indication recto r and verso v :.
Nezahualcóyotl, entre historia, leyenda y divinización
El pan es de mayz, y ceuada, y de otra semilla que ello[s] llaman tafo. A los nouicios dan entre dos, tres panes, y son tales, que cierto es de espantar como se pueden mantener. At this point, the reference to taffo, tafo or tefo is noteworthy; i. This excerpt is especially important and different specialists have drawn attention to it. This reference to roasted flour by Padilla and not to mention to maize in general has its history and its consequences.
With this, as it can be seen, he chose to convert gofio into sponge cake before worrying about giving a more plausible explanation, since it was a food specifically from the Canary Islands, although of African origin in general, and North African in particular, which, undoubtedly, Padilla knew perfectly, in the same way that his peninsular colleagues ignored it.
In relation with this work it can be said, with respect to our topic, that the confusion among millet, sorghum and maize instead of decrease it rather tends to increase. We will see this more clearly in the following example:. Excerpt in which it can be noticed that, in the French translation, there is no distinction between millet and durum wheat but simply millet. Ethiopia ended up seeing the early growing, on its fertile fields, of the new seed from America. Given its new relations with the West and in particular its traditional trade with the area of Barbary is not unusual that the plant did not delayed its arrival in the lands of the negus, where it should not take too long to be accepted, understandably, with the natural interest among people who are used to the consumption of cereals of similar kind.
This takes place in connection with the sacrifice of Isaac This is a risky statement if we consider the previous examples that show the frequent publication, in a short space of time, of several of the abovementioned works and of many others into the vernacular languages of Portugal, Spain, France, Italy and other European countries. In The Travels of the Jesuits in Ethiopia , Baltasar Teles alluded, in short, to the maize fields in the region of Dancaz, in a suitable location for the founding of a city. At this point, however, maize was already spread throughout the world.
The penetration of maize without going into details about varieties and subspecies in the area of the Gulf of Guinea are closely related also to the slave trade, which supplied Brazil and other American slave markets such as Cartagena de Indias itself, the Antilles, etc. The cereal goes around the African continent and moves forward to the East Indies along with Lusitanian sailors and merchants and, as their settlement takes place in different regions over which the Portuguese wielded control or with which they established important trade links, maize continues its trail crossing seas, valleys, rivers and continents.
Ethiopia, Mozambique and Tanzania, meanwhile, also occupy a prominent place on a worldwide scale in the consumption of Zea mays. This work suggests, firstly, a reinterpretation of the original historical sources in order to deepen the reconstruction of the cultural map of maize in a large part of Africa, especially in the coastal regions of Lusitanian colonization; but without forgetting the relevance of the links with the East and the New World, which contributed to generate for the first time exchanges of worldwide dimensions that to a greater or lesser extent involved all continents.
The comparative study of different descriptive traditions as well as an adequate knowledge of Iberian identities which would avoid the conceptual confusion that is perceived in some foreign studies , in the style of what this work attempted to insinuate in the case of Ethiopia, could shed new light on the phenomenon.
The point is that it seems reasonable to rethink the issue, above all after the methodological impact of the linguistic turn and bearing in mind, especially, the peculiarity and the identity of Portuguese and Spanish historical and literary sources. Estudio de la FAO. Mundi-Prensa, Madrid. Luis Rodriguez, [Lisboa]. Traducido por fray Thomas de Padilla. Juan Steelsio, Anvers. Chistophe Plantin, Anvers. Agostin Millan, Zaragoza. Traducido por Miguel de Selves. Pedro Rodriguez, Toledo.
A/CONF/13/Add Informe de la CIPD, Adicion (94/10/18)
Idea, Santa Cruz de Tenerife. Mathurin Henault, Paris. Giovanni di Barros. Vincenzo Valgrisio, Venecia. Jorge Rodrigues, Lisboa. Beckingham, C. Hakluyt Society, Cambridge. Botero Benes, Juan Relaciones universales del mundo. Traducido por Diego de Aguiar. UNED, Madrid.
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